How to Improve Short-Term Memory

Edited and medically reviewed by Patrick Alban, DC | Written by Deane Alban

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Improve your short-term memory by 1) boosting your brain health with the right diet, supplements, and lifestyle, and 2) using memory techniques to develop it.

Do moments like these sound familiar?

  • You often forget why you walked into a room.
  • You can’t remember something you just read.
  • You immediately forget the name of the new neighbor you just met.

This kind of forgetfulness can be embarrassing.

It can also be dangerous when you’re doing everyday tasks like driving or cooking.

Fortunately, there’s much you can do to improve your short-term memory.

The Three Stages of Memory

There’s some confusion about the definition and use of the term short-term memory, even among experts.

To understand short-term memory, we need to see how it fits into the whole memory process.

Psychologists believe that we have one memory system with three separate stages — sensory, short-term, and long-term.

The diagram below summarizes the three stages of memory.

chart depicting how memories are stored
How memories are processed and stored.

Sensory Memory

Sensory memory is fleeting, lasting less than half a second.

It allows you to almost photographically retain an image, sound, or other sensation.

These ultra-short-term memories immediately move into short-term memory.

Short-Term Memory

Short-term memory acts as a filter and temporary storage.

This is where sensory memories are either filtered out and forgotten or put into long-term memory.

Long-Term Memory

Long-term memory is where information that’s been determined to have value is held permanently.

Unlike sensory and short-term memories, long-term memory can store unlimited amounts of information indefinitely.

A good analogy of how memory works is to compare it to a computer.

Your short-term memory works like your computer’s RAM, which provides working space for short computations.

Your long-term memory is like your computer’s hard drive, where data is stored permanently.

Keep in mind that no one really knows exactly how memory works or where memories are stored.

The “Three Stages of Memory” is a theory that describes how scientists think memory works.

Since our knowledge of the brain has grown exponentially in recent years and will continue to do so, it’s likely that some changes will be made to this model.

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What Is Short-Term Memory?

Now that you know the part short-term memory plays in the whole picture, let’s look at it in greater depth.

Your short-term memory is where you temporarily store small bits of information, usually for only 15-30 seconds.

Think of it as your brain’s scratch pad.

While it’s thought that consolidation of short-term memories into long-term memories largely takes place in the hippocampus, short-term memory isn’t a place in the brain as much as it’s a mental process. (1)

You use your short-term memory to do things like temporarily memorizing a phone number until you can jot it down or remembering a comment you wish to add to a conversation.

This kind of information quickly disappears unless you make a point of remembering it.

Your short-term memory also acts as a filter, deciding what’s worth keeping and what should be discarded.

Clearly, you don’t want or need to remember every single detail of everything that’s ever happened to you.

This ability to discard useless information keeps your brain from being overwhelmed.

Short-Term Memory Capacity

For years, it was thought that we could store seven pieces of information, give or take a few, in our short-term memory. (2)

But the latest research has found that the actual number may be lower than that.

It’s more likely that only four pieces of information can normally be remembered at one time. (3)

Working Memory: Similar to Short-Term Memory

You may have come across the term working memory.

It is often used interchangeably with short-term memory.

Like short-term memory, working memory temporarily stores information.

But it also organizes and manipulates it. (4)

The term “short-term memory” came first.

Working memory was coined in the 1960s and was influenced by the advent of the computer and its similarity to the working of the brain.

Most psychologists today believe the theory of working memory, which encompasses active manipulation of information, to be more accurate than the short-term memory theory. (5)

However, knowing that they are basically the same thing is sufficient for the layperson.

The steps you would take to boost working memory would be the same as those you’d take to improve short-term memory.

Guidelines for Improving Short-Term Memory

Short-term memory loss can be inconvenient, frustrating, and embarrassing.

And, of course, you want to keep it from getting worse.

There are many proven ways to improve brain health (and thus memory), such as:

  • Eating a healthy diet high in real food (unprocessed food) and low in processed foods and sugar.
  • Getting plenty of sleep, exercise, and mental stimulation.
  • Avoiding brain drains like stress and harmful substances.
  • Taking appropriate supplements.

In addition to these foundations of brain health, there are additional evidence-based ways to specifically enhance short-term memory and/or working memory.

First, we’ll look at foods, supplements, and other lifestyle habits that can help your brain function better.

Then, we’ll consider the obstacles to a better short-term memory that need to be avoided.

And lastly, besides getting your brain healthier, you’ll read about simple memory improvement techniques that train your memory to work better.

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Improve Short-Term Memory with Diet

As an eating plan to improve your overall health, attain your ideal weight, and improve your memory, you won’t go wrong following the Mediterranean diet.

It’s generally considered to be the healthiest eating plan of all.

And a review of 18 studies on the Mediterranean diet found it to be beneficial for both long-term and working memory. (6)

A few specific foods have also been found to help short-term memory.


Chocolate may the most delicious way to improve your memory.

A study at Harvard Medical School found that drinking two cups of hot chocolate increased blood flow to the brain for 2-3 hours resulting in better working memory test scores. (7)

But dark chocolate has the most brain health benefits.


Ginger is a versatile food and supplement that was traditionally used to treat memory loss and dementia. (8)

When healthy middle-aged adults were given dried ginger supplements, they showed improvement in working memory, reaction time, and attention. (9)


If you are among the billions of people who start the day with caffeine, you’ll be happy to know that caffeinated beverages improve both short-term and long-term memory and reaction times. (1011)

Stay Hydrated

Speaking of beverages, drink plenty of fluids.

It’s estimated that 75% of the US population is chronically dehydrated. (12)

Mild dehydration causes measurable brain shrinkage which affects short-term memory, concentration, and alertness. (13)

One Food to Avoid — White Sugar

One food that is, unfortunately, a big item for many people is one you need to avoid — white sugar.

It increases brain inflammation, damages neurons, and alters your brainwave patterns, making it hard to think clearly.

It raises blood glucose levels which affects your short-term memory, attention span, and mood. (14)

Sugar is highly suspected of being a root cause of Alzheimer’s with many experts now believing it is a form of diabetes of the brain. (15)


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Supplements for Short-Term Memory

While there are hundreds of supplements that qualify as brain supplements and can help with memory, only a handful have been found to specifically improve short-term memory.

Ginkgo Biloba

Ginkgo biloba is one of the most popular brain supplements in the world.

One study in healthy adults found that it improved short-term memory significantly. (16)

Magnesium l-Threonate

Magnesium l-threonate is a relatively new magnesium chelate that’s designed to help magnesium enter the brain.

Magnesium l-threonate aids learning and improves short-term memory, as well as working and long-term memory. (1718)

When picking a magnesium supplement, avoid magnesium sulfate, the kind found in Epsom salts.

This form of magnesium is great for soaking sore muscles, but may be harmful to your brain.

There are reports of magnesium sulfate triggering short-term memory loss, brain fog, and other kinds of cognitive issues. (19)


DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) is an omega-3 essential fatty acid that’s a major building block of brain cells.

When your body is low in DHA, it results in a structurally smaller brain. (20)

Fish oil, a popular source of DHA, has been shown to improve working memory in young adults by 23%. (21)


Curcumin is the main bioactive compound in the Indian spice turmeric.

One study found that a single dose of curcumin resulted in a noticeable improvement in working memory, mood, and attention in healthy seniors. (22)

American Ginseng

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is an impressive cognitive enhancer, even more so than its Asian counterpart (Panax ginseng).

Research shows that it gets to work quickly to improve short-term memory and reaction times within a few hours after taking a single dose. (23)


Nicotine (NOT via smoking) is among the most controversial cognitive enhancers.

An analysis of 41 studies on nicotine reached the surprising conclusion that it is one of the most reliable cognitive enhancers known and, ingested apart from smoking, is surprisingly safe.

It was found to improve short-term memory, working memory, fine motor skills, attention, accuracy, and response time. (24)

It also shows promise in treating currently incurable brain diseases, including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.

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Avoid These Drugs That Cause Short-Term Memory Loss

We’ve discussed substances that can enhance your short-term memory.

Now let’s look at those that can sabotage it.

You probably won’t be surprised to learn that recreational substances ranging from alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana to heroin and cocaine take a toll on short-term memory. (25)

The effect varies by drug, but, in general, reducing their use is one of the best things you can do to keep your brain healthy and your memory sharp for the long haul.

However, you might not realize that many prescription drugs cause short-term memory loss as well.

Two of the worst for short-term memory loss are anti-anxiety drugs (such as benzodiazepines) and narcotic painkillers (opioid analgesics).

These drugs are anticholinergic — they block the action of acetylcholine, the main brain chemical associated with memory and learning. (26)

Read more —
If you are taking any medications you suspect are causing your memory loss, check out Drugs That Cause Memory Loss (& what you can do).

If you take either of these kinds of drugs, talk to your doctor about alternatives.

In the meantime, you might want to look into two outstanding supplements for overcoming drug-induced memory loss — citicoline and vinpocetine.

If you take any anticholinergic medications, add citicoline to your supplement regime.

It’s a precursor to acetylcholine and will help maintain a healthy level of this important brain chemical. (27)

Improve Short-Term Memory with Sleep

A poll by the National Sleep Foundation found that 43% of Americans rarely get a good night’s sleep.

Sixty percent report that they experience sleep problems almost every night. (28)

Getting 8 hours of sleep is no indulgence, it’s critical for your health and mental well-being.

Lack of quality sleep will impair your memory, creativity, judgment, and attention.

It’s during sleep that your brain consolidates memories, washes out metabolic debris, and repairs and creates new brain cells.

This is also when your brain moves memories from short-term storage into long-term storage, clearing the deck for the next day. (29)

Sleep deprivation sharply decreases the amount of information that can be held in short-term memory.

Normally, we can remember about 4 bits of information at a time.

But when you don’t get enough sleep, that number decreases to 1 or 2. (30)

The 20 million Americans who suffer from sleep apnea face an additional hazard to their brains.

During sleep, their brains do not get enough oxygen which leads to a loss of brain cells in the regions that store short-term memories. (31)

Not sure if you’ve got sleep apnea?

The most obvious signs are loud snoring and waking up choking or gasping for breath.

Often you won’t remember these episodes, so your sleeping partner will be the one to tell you.

Other Lifestyle Factors That Enhance Short-Term Memory

Exercise Regularly

Regular physical exercise is a key lifestyle habit for a good memory.

Cardiovascular exercise improves short-term memory and prevents deterioration of the hippocampus, the brain’s primary memory center. (32)

You don’t have to exercise for a long time, or strenuously, to reap these benefits.

It appears that 20 minutes of low-intensity exercise is ideal.

Walk Outside

Walking in nature can improve short-term memory. (33)

If you can’t walk outside, even looking at an image of a natural scene can help you recover from mental fatigue. (34)


Just one 20-minute session of yoga has a significant, immediate impact on working memory and concentration. (35)

Read more —
You’ll find dozens of articles about stress and relaxation on Be Brain Fit.

Don’t Multitask

Stop multitasking — it takes a surprising toll on cognitive performance. (36)

Mental toggling back and forth between tasks disrupts short-term memory. (37)

So stick with doing one thing at a time.

If you have trouble with this, try meditation.


Meditation trains your brain to focus on the now.

It can help your memory get better fast even if you are a beginner.

Study participants who were new to meditation experienced improvements in working memory, executive functioning, energy, and mood after just four mindfulness meditation sessions. (38)

Reduce Stress

Minimize chronic stress which changes your brain’s function and structure down to the level of your DNA. (39)

It also disrupts your brain’s short-term memory recall. (40)

So take active measures to get your stress under control.

Use Proven Short-Term Memory Techniques

Now that you’ve optimized your brain health, the next step is to learn how to use your memory capacity more effectively.

Having an excellent memory is not something most of us are born with, but it’s a skill that can be learned and developed.

In fact, world class memory masters who perform amazing feats of memory all use memory tips, tricks, and techniques.

Here are some of the best tried-and-true memory techniques that can immediately help you remember better.

Write It Down

The act of writing something requires concentration and will help you remember.

Writing helps you remember better than typing the same information into your electronic device.

Turns out that, at least where your memory is concerned, “the pen is mightier than the keyboard.” (41)

Do One Thing at a Time

Your brain has to pick what to remember.

Don’t give it the choice to filter out information that you want to remember.

Avoid Distractions

Short-term memory is a fragile thing.

If something distracts you on the way to the kitchen, you’ll forget why you went there. (42)

Concentrate on the Present

Don’t be thinking about what you’re going to do tomorrow or worry about what happened yesterday.

Your ability to concentrate on the present can greatly enhance your ability to learn and remember new information.

Say It Out Loud

If there’s a fact, name, or number you want to learn, repeat it several times, either out loud or to yourself.

This simple action will help you remember it. (43)

Create Memory Bait

If there is something you need or want to learn, memorize a few basic facts about the subject.

This foundation of memories will make your brain more “sticky” for new memories on this topic.

Chunk It

Chunking is breaking up information into smaller, more memorable bits.

You might have trouble remembering the number 8034273298, but would find it easier to remember 803-427-3298.

That is why phone numbers, social security numbers, and nine-digit zip codes are broken down into smaller chunks.

Use Mnemonics

Mnemonics are memory techniques that were first developed by ancient Greek teachers and philosophers (before books and the internet) when having a good memory was essential. (44)

Examples of mnemonics include acronyms, acrostics, and the “mind palace.”

Address Health Conditions That Affect Memory

Lastly, there are some common health conditions that can contribute to short-term memory loss.

They include nutritional deficiencies, thyroid disorders, high blood pressure, fibromyalgia, cancer, depression, and diabetes.

Read more —
You’ll find a comprehensive list of health conditions that affect memory in Short-Term Memory Loss: Causes, Symptoms, Testing.

If you suspect you have an underlying health condition contributing to your memory loss, talk to your doctor.

Getting your condition under control may be the answer to your short-term memory problems.

How to Improve Short-Term Memory: Take the Next Step

Short-term memory acts as your brain’s temporary storage for small bits of information.

You can improve short-term memory with the right kind of foods, supplements, and lifestyle habits.

There are also proven memory techniques that train the memory to make it easier to concentrate, remember, and learn.

Using the two-pronged approach of optimizing brain health and using memory improvement techniques is the most effective way to overcome short-term memory lapses.

READ NEXT: Short-Term Memory Loss: Causes, Symptoms, Testing