Best, Proven Brain Supplements (detailed guide)

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Last updated September 27, 2023.
Edited and medically reviewed by Patrick Alban, DC. Written by Deane Alban.

Only the best brain supplements are proven to help improve memory, mood, and concentration, as well as protect against brain aging and cognitive decline.

Research has shown that taking the right supplements can help boost your brain’s health and performance.

But picking the right one(s) can be a challenge.

There are hundreds of individual ingredients to choose from — vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, and phytonutrients — and thousands of combinations of those ingredients.

So how do you choose?

Finding the best supplement largely depends on the results you are looking for.

Are you looking to increase your attention and concentration?

Is your biggest concern reversing memory loss or preventing age-related mental decline?

Or are you feeling stressed out, depressed, or anxious?

How to Get the Most From This Guide

In this guide, you’ll find the best, proven brain supplements — those shown to be safe and effective and offer a wide variety of benefits.

We’ll examine the important properties of each one, and include recommended dosages and potential side effects and interactions, so that you can make an informed decision.

Keep in mind that almost all of these supplements have multiple brain health benefits, not just the ones suggested by the section titles.

For in-depth information, use the links for the “Related” articles that you’ll find within each section.

Also, once you’ve decided which ingredients sound right for you, you will need to decide which brand to buy.

To make a knowledgeable decision, read our guide on how to choose a good supplement.

1. Citicoline: Potent Brain Protector

Citicoline is a naturally occurring compound found in every cell of the body.

It’s less widely known than many other brain supplements on this list, yet it’s one of the best brain boosters available.

Citicoline helps build healthy brain cell membranes.

It improves blood flow to the brain and increases brain plasticity, the brain’s ability to change throughout its lifetime.

It boosts brain energy by firing up mitochondria, the power plants of our cells. 

Citicoline reduces the harmful effects of free radical damage and inflammation, two major causes of brain aging. 

It raises levels of two important neurotransmitters, acetylcholine and dopamine

Acetylcholine is the primary brain chemical involved with memory and learning.

A low acetylcholine level is implicated in serious neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer’s, dementia, and multiple sclerosis

Dopamine is positively linked to motivation, productivity, mood, and our pleasure-reward system.

Citicoline supplements can significantly improve memory, concentration, focus, and attention


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Doctors throughout Europe prescribe citicoline for serious neurological disorders, such as age-related memory loss, stroke, brain injury, dementia, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s. 

Citicoline is sometimes sold as a single-ingredient supplement, but is often included in nootropic brain supplement formulas. 

One study comparing citicoline to several popular nootropics concluded that it improved memory and cognition as well as the study drug piracetam

Consider citicoline if you take any medications that are anticholinergic, i.e., those that work by blocking the action of acetylcholine. 

A surprising number of drugs, both prescription and over-the-counter (OTC), fall into this category.

A good rule of thumb is that any medication with a name that starts with “anti” is likely to lower acetylcholine levels.

This includes antihistamines, antidepressants, antipsychotics, antibiotics, antispasmodics, and antihypertensives.

Suggested Citicoline Dosage

A typical dose of citicoline is 250 to 1,000 mg, twice a day, for a total intake of 500 to 2,000 mg. 

When looking for a citicoline supplement, you are likely to come across CDP-choline (cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine).

This is simply another name for citicoline.

You may also see the brand name Cognizin®.

This is a patented, highly bioavailable form of citicoline that has research to back up its claims as a cognitive enhancer. 

Unlike other forms of citicoline, Cognizin has been clinically tested in humans.

Citicoline Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

Most people who take citicoline experience no side effects.

Reported side effects are unusual, but include insomnia, headache, diarrhea, low or high blood pressure, nausea, blurred vision, and chest pains. 

Do not mix citicoline with levodopa, a medication used to treat Parkinson’s disease, without talking to your doctor. 

Citicoline can amplify this drug’s effectiveness which may require a change in its dosage.

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2. Curcumin: Nutritional “Gold” for Your Brain

Curcumin is the main bioactive compound in the Indian spice turmeric (Curcuma longa).

It’s responsible for turmeric’s brilliant gold color and most of its health benefits.

curcumin supplements and turmeric powder
Curcumin powder and capsules.

Curcumin protects the brain in a number of ways.

It increases levels of dopamine and serotonin, two neurotransmitters responsible for positive mood. 

In fact, curcumin has been found to be as effective for depression as the popular antidepressant Prozac. 

It increases blood flow to the brain as effectively as physical exercise

Curcumin reduces the compulsiveness and associated memory loss of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). 

Impressively, curcumin was found to improve both memory and attention in healthy seniors within an hour of taking a single dose.

Additionally, these study participants showed significant improvements in working memory, energy, mood, and stress after taking curcumin for one month.

Curcumin’s potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties help to reduce brain inflammation and break up brain plaques associated with Alzheimer’s disease. 

Seniors in India who consume turmeric as a regular part of their diet have some of the lowest rates of Alzheimer’s in the world. 

Suggested Curcumin and Turmeric Dosages

You can get curcumin from either curcumin or turmeric supplements.

Typical turmeric dosages range from 200 mg to 6 grams per day. 

The recommended daily dose of curcumin is 500 mg twice per day provided the supplement manufacturer has taken steps to enhance its bioavailability


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  • Provides the building blocks to create new brain cells and brain chemicals
  • Helps increase resilience to stress to avoid mental burnout
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Curcumin supplements are poorly absorbed, but there are ways to overcome this problem.

The addition of piperine, a compound found in black pepper, is one of the most common ways to enhance bioavailability.

This combination can increase curcumin absorption by an impressive 2,000%. 

Curcumin and Turmeric Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

Turmeric consumed as a spice in food is very safe and turmeric supplements have fewer side effects than curcumin supplements. 

But either can cause nausea and diarrhea, especially at high doses.

These supplements can interact with medicines like aspirin, NSAID painkillers, statins, diabetes drugs, blood pressure medicines, and blood thinners.

They may also interact with supplements with blood-thinning properties such as ginkgo, ginseng, and garlic. 

And be aware that the piperine often added to curcumin supplements can also increase the side effects of a number of drugs. 

However, you can increase the bioavailability of curcumin and turmeric supplements by simply taking them with a meal or along with a phosphatidylserine supplement.

If you take any medications, check for possible interactions between them and turmeric or curcumin with a reputable online interaction checker.

3. Acetyl-l-Carnitine: For More Mental Energy

Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) is an amino acid that increases both mental and physical energy.

It acts as a powerful antioxidant, protecting the brain against free radical damage. 

ALCAR is a precursor of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter associated with memory and learning.

It increases levels of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine, both of which play a role in depression.

In fact, acetyl-l-carnitine is a fast-acting antidepressant that usually brings some relief within a week. 

It improves mental clarity, focus, mood, mental processing speed, and memory and has strong anti-aging effects on the brain. 

It can be a helpful adjunct treatment for chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s

One study found that acetyl-l-carnitine stabilizes the proteins that produce the protein tangles found in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients. 

It increases the insulin sensitivity of cells to help them utilize blood glucose, the brain’s main fuel source. 

There’s evidence that it may help prevent brain damage from excessive alcohol intake

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Suggested Acetyl-l-Carnitine Dosage

The generally recommended dose range for acetyl-l-carnitine is 1,500 to 3,000 mg per day. 

When buying a brain supplement, be sure to look for acetyl-l-carnitine rather than l-carnitine.

ALCAR is a form of l-carnitine that crosses into the brain more easily to better support cognitive function

Acetyl-l-Carnitine Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

Acetyl-l-carnitine is generally considered safe but there are a few side effects, mainly digestive upset or a fishy body odor. 

If you take a blood thinner such as Coumadin, avoid taking ALCAR as it can increase the drug’s blood-thinning effects.

There’s some concern that acetyl-l-carnitine may interfere with thyroid hormone, so discuss this with your doctor if you have low thyroid function. 

4. Bacopa: For Balanced Brain Chemistry

Bacopa (Bacopa monnieri) is a traditional Ayurvedic herbal remedy.

Its use as a nerve and brain tonic for improving memory, learning, and concentration dates back at least 3,000 years. 

bacopa monnieri
Bacopa monnieri flowers.

According to legend, bacopa was used by ancient scholars to help them memorize lengthy hymns and scriptures.

It increases cerebral blood flow, delivering more oxygen, nutrients, and glucose to the brain. 

When tested against two very different kinds of cognitive enhancers — the herbal remedy ginseng and the popular smart drug Modafinil — bacopa came out on top

Bacopa is among the handful of herbs that are considered adaptogenic.

Adaptogens have the ability to lower stress and increase energy without being either sedating or stimulating.

In this way, adaptogens act like a thermostat to keep you in a mental comfort zone.

Bacopa works, in part, by balancing the levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and GABA, while reducing the level of the stress hormone cortisol. 

It’s this ability to restore balance that makes bacopa an excellent choice if you are looking for a natural cognitive-enhancing supplement that also alleviates stress, anxiety, or depression. 

Suggested Bacopa Dosage

So far, about a dozen bioactive compounds have been found in bacopa, the most important being bacopaside A and bacopaside B. 

Look for a supplement with a standardized content of 55% bacopasides.

A typical dose of bacopa is 300 mg per day. 

Standardized brands of bacopa that have clinical studies to support its use as a cognitive enhancer include KeenMind®, BacoMind®, Bacognize®, and Synapsa®. 

Bacopa Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

Bacopa is considered very safe, even safe enough to give to children.

Side effects of bacopa are rare, but the most common ones are dry mouth and digestive upset. 

These can largely be avoided by taking it with meals. 

Traditionally, bacopa is administered as a food that is cooked with ghee (clarified butter).

Bacopa should not be combined with antihistamines, antidepressants, glaucoma medications, drugs taken for Alzheimer’s, or thyroid hormones.

5. American Ginseng: Best-in-Class Brain Booster

Ginseng is a classical Asian herb, but American ginseng is now considered the best in the world.

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) belongs to the same genus as Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng) but is a separate species with a distinct ginsenoside profile.

ginseng root in a bowl
Ginseng root.

Even the Chinese now prefer American ginseng for its superior quality and ability to upgrade brain function

American ginseng is mostly cultivated in Wisconsin and Canada, where growing conditions are ideal for encouraging a higher concentration of ginseng’s active ingredients, ginsenosides

Cereboost® is a patented extract derived from American ginseng with clinical studies to support its effectiveness as a cognitive enhancer.

Study participants given a mental aptitude test performed significantly better after ingesting Cereboost.

It worked quickly to improve memory, mental clarity, and sharpness within just a few hours of taking a single dose. 

Cereboost is neuroprotective and increases acetylcholine levels

American ginseng is a better choice than Asian ginseng if you tend toward anxiety since it is thought to be less stimulating

Like bacopa, American ginseng acts as an adaptogen, promoting physical strength and mental energy while mitigating the damaging effects of stress.

It also reduces postprandial hypoglycemia, a common underlying cause of anxiety

Suggested American Ginseng Dosage

Standard doses have not been established, but a typical dose of American ginseng is 200 to 400 mg taken twice daily. 

American ginseng supplements are available as capsules, tablets, powders, and liquid extracts.

You can also buy tea bags, loose bulk tea, and dried roots that are used to make tea or are added to cooked foods.

American Ginseng Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

American ginseng can cause some side effects such as diarrhea, insomnia, headache, and nervousness. 

Since its ginsenosides can act like estrogen, do not take American ginseng if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or have a hormone-sensitive cancer.

Discuss taking American ginseng with your doctor if you take an MAOI antidepressant, diabetic medication, or immune suppressant since it can affect the effectiveness of these drugs.

6. Alpha-GPC: Top Memory Enhancer

Alpha-GPC (alpha-glycerophosphocholine) is a synthetic form of choline.

Choline is an essential nutrient for brain development, healthy brain cells, and neurotransmitter formation.

It is a precursor of acetylcholine, the brain chemical linked to learning and memory.

Unfortunately, choline supplements do not effectively enter the brain.

However, the alpha-GPC form quickly and efficiently moves choline into the brain where it’s used to form brain cell membranes and stimulate the growth of new brain cells.

Alpha-GPC also increases levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), the neurotransmitter associated with relaxation

Signs of a low GABA level include being easily overstimulated, overwhelmed, and stressed out.

Alpha-GPC studies show that it consistently improves memory and attention span in people of all ages while warding off age-related mental decline. 

Alpha-GPC is sold as a memory supplement, but in Europe it is used as a prescription medication for Alzheimer’s, helping to increase acetylcholine levels. 

Alzheimer’s patients have low levels of acetylcholine along with fewer acetylcholine receptors. 

Alpha-GPC can also help the brain recover after a stroke or transient ischemic attack

Suggested Alpha-GPC Dosage

A typical dose of alpha-GPC is 300 to 600 mg, but a standard dose has yet to be determined. 

In almost all studies on mental decline, participants were given 400 mg, three times a day. 

Alpha-GPC Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

Alpha-GPC is generally considered safe, but possible side effects include headache, insomnia, dizziness, mental confusion, heartburn, and skin rash. 

Alpha-GPC supplements are derived from either soy or eggs, two of the most common food allergens, so be mindful if you have a known food allergy.

The only known drug interaction is with scopolamine, a drug often used for motion sickness and for nausea following surgery.

7. Lion’s Mane: A “Smart” Mushroom

Lion’s mane (Hericium erinaceus), also known as yamabushitake, is an edible mushroom native to parts of Asia, North America, and Europe.

It’s been used medicinally and as a culinary delicacy for thousands of years.

lion's mane mushroom growing on a log
Lion’s mane mushroom.

Now lion’s mane is sold as a brain supplement.

It’s been said that lion’s mane can impart “nerves of steel and the memory of a lion.”

World-renowned fungi expert Paul Stamets calls it the “first smart mushroom.” 

Lion’s mane is a popular nootropic — a substance that improves mental functions, such as memory, intelligence, motivation, attention, and concentration, while simultaneously improving brain health.

Lion’s mane excels at improving cognitive function and treating neurological disorders.

It contains two unique groups of compounds, hericenones and erinacines, that stimulate the formation of nerve growth factor (NGF). 

NGF is a protein that is crucial to the growth and maintenance of certain types of neurons.

Lion’s mane can also be helpful for anxiety and depression

Suggested Lion’s Mane Dosage

Optimal dosages have not yet been established, but a typical dose of lion’s mane extract is 1,000 mg taken three times a day. 

In one study, seniors with mild cognitive impairment, a condition that can be a precursor to dementia, experienced significant cognitive improvement by taking 3,000 mg of lion’s mane powder daily. 

Lion’s mane is available in capsules, powder, liquid tincture, or tea.

You may even find it fresh in Asian or gourmet food stores.

Lion’s Mane Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

Lion’s mane is extremely safe.

The only known side effect is itchy skin which is believed to be caused by the increase in nerve growth factor it stimulates. 

Lion’s mane mushroom may not be safe to mix with supplements that affect blood clotting.

8. Magnesium L-Threonate: Patented Brain Mineral

Magnesium is an essential dietary mineral required for over 600 metabolic functions

Unfortunately, fewer than half of us get adequate magnesium from the food we eat. 

Signs of magnesium deficiency include brain fog, lack of focus, inability to handle stress, insomnia, caffeine addiction, and feeling generally tired, but wired.

Magnesium supplementation has proven beneficial for numerous mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, ADHD, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and substance abuse

There are many forms of magnesium to choose from, but only magnesium l-threonate readily crosses the blood-brain barrier

Its unique ability to permeate brain cell membranes and elevate magnesium concentrations in the brain makes it an excellent choice for improving memory, attention, depression, and anxiety. 

Look for supplements that contain Magtein®, a patented brand of magnesium l-threonate that’s a proven cognitive enhancer.

Suggested Magnesium Dosage

The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for magnesium is generally 420 mg for men and 320 mg for women, but that can vary slightly depending on age. 

The manufacturer of Magtein suggests taking 1,000 mg twice a day for optimal cognitive benefits. 

This dose isn’t as high as it sounds, since only a fraction of Magtein is elemental magnesium, the amount of pure magnesium available in a supplement.

According to the Magtein label, 2,000 mg of magnesium l-threonate yields 144 mg of elemental magnesium. 

Magnesium Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

Magnesium can cause digestive upset and loose stools, particularly if you take too much or take inexpensive forms of magnesium, such as magnesium oxide or magnesium sulfate.

You should not take these anyway since they are the least bioavailable forms of magnesium

Magnesium sulfate, the kind found in Epsom salts, can cause dramatic diarrhea, vomiting, mental confusion, and seizures when taken internally. 

Drug Informer, a University of Utah project, reports that magnesium sulfate can trigger brain fog, short-term memory loss, amnesia, blackouts, and other kinds of mental distress. 

The only reported side effects of magnesium l-threonate are headaches, drowsiness, or a feeling of increased blood flow to the head.

Discuss taking magnesium with your doctor if you take antibiotics, high blood pressure medications, osteoporosis medications, or muscle relaxants. 

Magnesium can affect the effectiveness of these drugs. 

9. Tryptophan: Proven Mood Booster

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that’s a precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin.

Serotonin plays a large role in mood, sleep, learning, and appetite control.

diagram of the tryptophan-serotonin synthesis pathway
The pathway of tryptophan-serotonin synthesis. (Image courtesy of Dr. Katherine Chung)

A low serotonin level is widely believed to be a major cause of depression.

The most popular antidepressant medications like Prozac and Zoloft are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs); these are thought to work by making more serotonin available in the brain.

You can increase serotonin levels naturally by providing more of its building blocks in the form of tryptophan.

By increasing serotonin levels, tryptophan can improve the quality of life for those with a wide variety of brain-related and mental health issues.

Tryptophan has been found to be as effective for depression as antidepressant drugs in numerous trials.

Tryptophan has been found useful for reducing symptoms of anxiety disorders, panic attacks, insomnia, seasonal affective disorder, and more. 

Low levels of tryptophan are associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Children with ADHD have blood levels of tryptophan that are 50% lower than normal. 

A tryptophan deficiency has also been linked to memory loss and other measures of cognitive impairment.

Suggested Tryptophan Dosage

There is no official recommended dosage for tryptophan and suggested doses vary widely.

As little as 250 mg has been found to improve the quality of sleep.

On the other hand, Mayo Clinic recommends up to 12 grams per day for depression. 

Most supplement manufacturers suggest a daily dose of 1,000 to 1,500 mg. 

A reasonable place to start is 500 mg a day, then working up to a higher dosage as needed.

Tryptophan Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

The most common tryptophan side effects are digestive upset, loss of appetite, headache, and drowsiness. 

Tryptophan should NOT be taken with SSRI antidepressants.

When taken together, this combination can cause a potentially serious condition known as serotonin syndrome.

Tryptophan should also not be taken with drugs that have a sedating effect, such as Ambien, Ativan, Valium, and Ultram.

10. Vinpocetine: A Natural “Smart Drug”

Vinpocetine is a relatively new brain booster that blurs the line between brain supplement and smart drug.

It’s based on vincamine, a chemical found in periwinkle (Vinca minor). 

periwinkle flowers
Periwinkle, source of vincamine.

This flowering vine has been used traditionally to treat headaches, memory loss, and vertigo. 

Vinpocetine supplements are usually taken to improve memory, overcome brain fog, increase mental clarity, protect the brain against aging, and promote overall mental well-being. 

Vinpocetine rapidly enters the brain to increase blood flow, decrease brain inflammation, protect against free radical damage, and balance neurotransmitter levels

Its ability to protect the brain against degeneration makes it a potential treatment for Alzheimer’s. 

Vinpocetine increases blood flow to the brain and improves the brain’s ability to use glucose, its main source of energy, after a stroke. 

In some parts of the world, vinpocetine is available by prescription only. 

Here in the US, it’s available as a brain supplement, at least for now. 

Several years ago, the FDA initiated proceedings to take vinpocetine off the shelves, not because there have been any safety issues, but because they believed it should be classified as a drug rather than as a supplement. 

But so far it’s still available as a supplement.

While studies show that vinpocetine looks like a promising treatment for mental decline, dementia, and Alzheimer’s, there’s not much research yet to back up claims that it makes cognitively healthy adults smarter.

Suggested Vinpocetine Dosage

Most clinical studies on vinpocetine have used doses of 5 to 30 mg, three times daily. 

Related on Be Brain Fit —
Cognitive Enhancers Compared

It’s best to be broken up into 3 dosages throughout the day since it breaks down in the body quickly.

Avoid taking vinpocetine on an empty stomach since it’s absorbed significantly better with food.

Vinpocetine Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

Vinpocetine is generally considered safe for most people.

Potential side effects include digestive upset, insomnia, headache, dizziness, nervousness, skin rash, and flushing. 

It’s advised that you avoid vinpocetine if you take a blood thinner like warfarin (Coumadin) or any over-the-counter medications that can interfere with clotting such as ibuprofen or naproxen. 

Additionally, it’s been deemed unsafe for pregnant women since it can increase the risk of miscarriage. 

11. Huperzine A: Powerful Memory Remedy

Chinese club moss (Huperzia serrata) is a small plant native to parts of Asia that’s a traditional Chinese medicine treatment for improving memory and circulation and reducing inflammation. 

The main active compound in Chinese club moss is an alkaloid called huperzine A.

chinese club moss
Chinese club moss, source of huperzine A.

Huperzine A works mainly by raising levels of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved with learning, memory, sleep cycle regulation, and other brain functions. 

It operates by the same mechanism as the popular Alzheimer’s drug Aricept.

Both huperzine A and Aricept inhibit an enzyme (acetylcholinesterase) that deactivates acetylcholine.

Related on Be Brain Fit —
How Acetylcholine Deficiency Impacts Memory

Huperzine A shows promise for improving memory and slowing cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s patients. 

It protects the brain against free radical damage and toxins while promoting new brain cell generation.  

Huperzine A is so powerful that it’s been given the status of an approved drug for treating vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s in China. 

Suggested Huperzine A Dosage

The general recommended dosage for huperzine A is 50 to 200 mcg daily.

Unlike some of the other supplements discussed here, it’s not problematic to take huperzine A on an empty stomach. 

Huperzine A Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

Although huperzine A is a naturally occurring compound, it’s not without side effects.

Reported side effects are significant and include insomnia, anxiety, nausea, diarrhea, blurred vision, slurred speech, restlessness, anorexia, muscle twitching, cramps, incontinence, high blood pressure, and slowed heart rate. 

Huperzine A does not mix well with many drugs and should not be taken with antihistamines, antidepressants, the Alzheimer’s drug Aricept, or the motion sickness drug scopolamine. 

12. Ginkgo: Timeless Brain Tonic

Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) is one of the most widely used natural remedies in the world. 

It has a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine.

ginkgo leaves and pills and mortar and pestle
Ginkgo leaves and ginkgo supplement tablets.

Ginkgo increases circulation to the brain, balances brain chemistry, and protects the brain against free radical damage. 

It’s considered so effective that it’s sometimes prescribed as a medication in Europe.

But not all of ginkgo’s reported benefits have held up to scientific scrutiny.

Two major studies concluded that ginkgo does not improve memory or other cognitive functions in healthy adults

But this does not make ginkgo useless as a brain supplement.

And, of course, you may decide that its long history of use outweighs the latest scientific findings.

Ginkgo has been proven beneficial for treating stress and anxiety by lowering levels of the stress hormone cortisol. 

It reliably improves short-term memory in seniors. 

Ginkgo reduces ADHD symptoms in children and teens, but not as effectively as the ADHD drug Ritalin.

It can increase the turnover of both serotonin and dopamine, neurotransmitters linked to depression. 

And lastly, for those diagnosed with dementia or Alzheimer’s, ginkgo shows promise for improving memory and day-to-day quality of life

Suggested Ginkgo Dosage

A typical ginkgo dose is 40 to 120 mg, three times a day. 

Start with a low dose and take with meals to avoid gastrointestinal distress.

Ginkgo Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

Known ginkgo side effects include digestive upset, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, and restlessness. 

Ginkgo should not be taken with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants such as Prozac or Zoloft, since, in combination, they can cause serotonin syndrome

Ginkgo reacts badly with a slew of medications. lists nearly 300 of them.

If you take any medications, talk to your doctor or pharmacist, or visit to check for Ginkgo biloba drug interactions before taking this supplement.

13. DHA: Critical Brain Cell Building Block

DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) is an omega-3 essential fatty acid that is highly recommended for optimal brain performance.

Omega-3 deficiency is widespread, linked to dozens of diseases, and contributes to 96,000 preventable deaths per year. 

fish oil capsules
Capsules of fish oil, a source of DHA.

Omega-3 fats are so important to health that more than 40,000 studies have been published on their health benefits! 

And, of all the omega-3s, DHA is the most important for the brain.

Omega-3 fats are hard to get from diet alone since few people regularly eat its main dietary source — wild-caught, cold water, oily fish such as salmon, herring, mackerel, and sardines. 

DHA is a major building block of the cerebral cortex, the area of the brain where higher-level functions occur.

It also plays an important role in brain cell communication.

Low DHA levels have been linked to depression, ADHD, serious psychiatric disorders, and to a measurable decrease in brain volume

Memory loss, depression, mood swings, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and attention deficit disorder have all been found to improve with DHA supplementation.

Seniors with high levels of DHA have a significantly reduced risk of developing dementia and Alzheimer’s. 

Suggested DHA and Fish Oil Dosages

DHA is sometimes sold as a single-ingredient supplement, but most commonly it is included as a major component in fish oil or krill oil supplements.

Experts generally recommend 500 to 900 mg of total omega-3s per day to maintain health and avoid deficiency, but therapeutic doses up to 3 grams are generally considered safe. 

A US National Institutes of Health workshop that included omega-3 experts from around the world determined that 220 mg of DHA is the minimum dose that should be taken for optimal health. 

But it’s safe and often beneficial to take more, up to 1,000 mg per day.

DHA and Fish Oil Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

DHA is considered generally safe.

It may increase blood sugar in diabetics and lower blood pressure in those with hypertension which can alter the need for medication.

Fish oil can increase the risk of bleeding when taken with aspirin or blood thinners, but DHA alone does not seem to affect blood clotting

14. Phosphatidylserine: Versatile Brain Enhancer

Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a phospholipid naturally found in high concentrations in the brain.

It is also a popular brain supplement for boosting memory, cognition, concentration, and learning.

Phosphatidylserine is a major component of human brain cell membranes.

By supporting brain cell membrane integrity, PS helps to keep toxins, pathogens, and other unwanted invaders out of the brain.

It normalizes levels of cortisol to reduce the effects of stress. 

Phosphatidylserine is safe and effective for brains of all ages.

Clinical trials have found that it can improve ADHD symptoms in children

It is a favorite memory supplement used by students to perform better on exams.

Phosphatidylserine is protective against mental decline, can improve mood, and can help with depression, especially in seniors

Numerous studies conclude that phosphatidylserine may be an effective treatment for Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia. 

Notably, phosphatidylserine is the only brain supplement that’s received a qualified stamp of approval from the FDA for age-related cognitive decline and dementia in seniors.

Suggested Phosphatidylserine Dosage

The general recommended dose for phosphatidylserine is 100 – 200 mg. 

However, taking up to 600 mg per day is considered safe

Phosphatidylserine is one of the few brain supplements with dosages determined for children.

A typical dose for children and young teens is 200 mg per day.

Phosphatidylserine Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

The most common side effects of phosphatidylserine supplements are digestive upset and insomnia, particularly with high dosages.

Phosphatidylserine should be avoided if you take blood thinners or anti-inflammatory drugs

It can decrease the effectiveness of antihistamines and antidepressants.

Do not take phosphatidylserine with drugs prescribed for Alzheimer’s, such as Aricept, Exelon, and Razadyne, without talking to your doctor. 

Phosphatidylserine can alter these drugs’ effectiveness and magnify their side effects.

Phosphatidylserine supplements are almost always derived from soy.

If soy is a food you normally avoid, look for one extracted from sunflower oil instead.

15. L-Theanine: Meditation in a Cup or Capsule

L-theanine is an amino acid found in black and green teas (Camellia sinensis) that offers a truly unique set of brain benefits.

One of the ways it works is by altering brainwave patterns. 

pot of green tea
Green tea, a source of l-theanine.

L-theanine induces a desirable brainwave state of relaxed attentiveness similar to that achieved during meditation

It sharpens focus, reduces stress, and imparts an overall sense of well-being.

L-theanine raises levels of several key brain chemicals — serotonin, dopamine, and GABA — to promote recall, learning, motivation, and positive mood. 

It makes you more resilient to stress and helps reduce anxiety

It won’t make you drowsy but can improve your quality of sleep

Interestingly, l-theanine works synergistically with caffeine.

The combination of caffeine and l-theanine can help you perform mentally demanding tasks better than caffeine alone

And since l-theanine is relaxing, it won’t leave you feeling edgy.

This unique caffeine-enhancing property makes l-theanine a popular supplement for those seeking optimal mental performance.

Some college students and biohackers use this caffeine-theanine combination in place of smart drugs.

L-theanine improves memory and cognition in seniors, even those diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). 

Its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties make it neuroprotective as well. 

Suggested L-Theanine Dosage

The general recommended dosage for l-theanine is 200 to 400 mg per day. 

Some people experience noticeable benefits with as little as 50 mg and almost everyone experiences some degree of relaxation with a 400 mg dose. 

A mix of l-theanine and caffeine is a popular nootropic “stack” for boosting mood, focus, concentration, and alertness

A typical stack is a ratio of 2:1 (100 mg of theanine for every 50 mg of caffeine). 

One popular brand of l-theanine is Suntheanine®.

This is a patented brand of pure theanine often used in studies when a standardized formula is required.

L-Theanine Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

L-theanine supplements are considered very safe. 

The few reported adverse reactions include headache, dizziness, and upset stomach. 

If you take high blood pressure medication, use l-theanine cautiously, since it can decrease your blood pressure and possibly change your need for medication. 

Brain Supplements: Take the Next Step

There are many reasons to take a brain supplement.

Brain supplements can help improve mood, memory, and concentration, as well as protect against brain aging and cognitive decline. And much more.

Now that you’ve learned about 15 substances that are proven both safe and effective, you may be eager to try some of them, but unsure of where to begin.

There are two approaches you can take.

Take a Single-Ingredient Supplement

Does one supplement stand out from the rest in specifically addressing your issues? 

For example, if you want better mental performance AND stress and anxiety relief, a bacopa supplement would fit the bill. 

One benefit of taking a single-ingredient supplement is that you can easily determine if it helps you. 

If it doesn’t, then you can try something else. 

To learn more about the individual supplements discussed above, see our “Related” article links. 

Take a Multi-Ingredient Supplement

A main benefit of multi-ingredient supplements is that the ingredients they contain may work together synergistically for even greater benefits. 

There are innumerable options in the marketplace; unfortunately, most are poor quality and are created by marketers, not brain health experts. 

It’s not easy to tell the good supplements from the bad, and it takes some time to investigate.

To help you, we’ve thoroughly researched the brain supplement market.

We recommend Mind Lab Pro.

This brain supplement has been created by neuroscientists who perform their own in-house research and development.

Mind Lab Pro’s formula includes several of the substances discussed in this article, including bacopa, citicoline, lion’s mane, phosphatidylserine, and l-theanine

It contains the premium forms of individual ingredients (like Cognizin® and Suntheanine®) and meets high standards for purity and safety.

See our MIND LAB PRO review.