Best, Proven Brain Supplements (detailed guide)

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Last updated October 16, 2021.
Edited and medically reviewed by Patrick Alban, DC. Written by Deane Alban.

Only the best brain supplements are proven to help improve memory, mood, and concentration as well as protect against brain aging and cognitive decline.

Research has shown that taking the right supplements can help boost your brain health and performance.

But picking the right one(s) can be a challenge.

There are literally hundreds of individual supplement ingredients to choose from — vitamins, minerals, herbs, amino acids, and phytonutrients — and thousands of combinations of ingredients.

So how do you choose?

Finding the best supplement largely depends on the results you are looking for.

Are you looking to increase your attention and concentration?

Is your biggest concern reversing memory loss or preventing age-related mental decline?

Or are you feeling stressed out, depressed, or anxious?

How to Get the Most From This Guide

In this guide, you’ll find the best, proven brain supplements — those shown to be safe and effective, and those that offer a wide variety of benefits.

We’ll examine the unique properties of each, and include recommended dosages and potential side effects and interactions, so that you can make an informed decision.

Keep in mind that almost all of these supplements have multiple brain health benefits, not just the one shown in the section titles.

For in-depth information, use the links for the related articles that you’ll find within each section.

Also, when you look to buy, you will find a lot of choices.

We urge you to read our guide on how to choose a good supplement.

1. Citicoline: Potent Brain Protector

Citicoline is a naturally occurring compound found in every cell of your body.

It’s less widely known that many other brain supplements that made this list, yet it’s one of the best brain boosters available.

Citicoline helps build healthy brain cell membranes.

It improves blood flow to the brain and increases brain plasticity, your brain’s ability to change throughout your lifetime.

It boosts brain energy by firing up your mitochondria, the powerhouse of each cell. 

Citicoline reduces the harmful effects of free radical damage and inflammation, two major causes of brain aging. 

It raises levels of two important neurotransmitters, acetylcholine and dopamine

Acetylcholine is the primary brain chemical involved with memory and learning.

Low acetylcholine is implicated in serious neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s, dementia, and multiple sclerosis

Dopamine is positively linked to motivation, productivity, mood, and your “pleasure-reward” system.

Citicoline supplements can significantly improve memory, concentration, focus, and attention


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Doctors throughout Europe prescribe citicoline for serious neurological disorders such as age-related memory loss, stroke, brain injury, dementia, Parkinson’s disease, and Alzheimer’s. 

Citicoline is sometimes sold as a single-ingredient supplement, but is often included in nootropic brain supplement formulas. 

One study comparing citicoline to several popular nootropics concluded that it improved memory and cognition as well as the study drug piracetam

Consider citicoline if you take any medications that are anticholinergic, i.e., those that work by blocking the action of acetylcholine. 

A surprising number of drugs, both prescription and over-the-counter (OTC), fall into this category.

A good rule of thumb is that any medication with a name that starts with “anti” is likely to lower your acetylcholine level.

This includes antihistamines, antidepressants, antipsychotics, antibiotics, antispasmodics, and antihypertensives.

Suggested Citicoline Dosage

A typical dose of citicoline is 250 to 1,000 mg, twice a day, for a total intake of 500 to 2,000 mg. 

A daily dose of 1,000 to 2,000 mg is recommended to support thinking skills

When looking for a citicoline supplement, you are likely to come across CDP-choline (cytidine 5′-diphosphocholine).

This is simply another name for citicoline; these are two names for the same compound.

You may also see the brand name Cognizin.

This is a highly bioavailable form of citicoline that’s got research to back up its claims as a cognitive enhancer. 

Unlike other forms of citicoline, Cognizin has been clinically tested in humans.

Citicoline Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

Most people who take citicoline experience no side effects.

But reported side effects of citicoline include insomnia, headache, diarrhea, low or high blood pressure, nausea, blurred vision, and chest pains. 

Do not mix citicoline with levodopa, a medication used to treat Parkinson’s disease, without talking to your doctor. 

Citicoline can amplify this drug’s effectiveness which may require a change in its dosage.

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2. Curcumin: Nutritional “Gold” for Your Brain

Curcumin is the main bioactive compound in the Indian spice turmeric (Curcuma longa).

It’s responsible for turmeric’s brilliant gold color and most of its health benefits.

curcumin supplements and turmeric powder
Curcumin powder and capsules.

Curcumin protects your brain in an impressive number of ways.

It increases levels of dopamine and serotonin, the “happiness brain chemical.” 

In fact, curcumin has been found to be as effective for depression as the popular antidepressant Prozac. 

It increases blood flow to the brain as effectively as physical exercise

Curcumin reduces the compulsiveness and associated memory loss of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). 

Impressively, curcumin was found to improve both memory and attention in healthy seniors within an hour of taking a single dose.

These study participants additionally showed significant improvements in working memory, energy, mood, and stress after taking curcumin for one month.

Curcumin’s potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties help to reduce brain inflammation and break up brain plaques associated with Alzheimer’s. 

Seniors in India who consume turmeric as a regular part of their diet have some of the lowest rates of Alzheimer’s in the world. 

Suggested Curcumin and Turmeric Dosages

You can get your curcumin from either curcumin or turmeric supplements.

A typical turmeric dosage is 500 mg, one to three times per day. 

The recommended daily dose of curcumin is also around 500 – 1,000 mg per day, provided that the supplement manufacturer has taken steps to enhance bioavailability

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Curcumin supplements are poorly absorbed, but there are ways to overcome this problem.

The addition of piperine, a compound found in black pepper, is one of the most common ways to enhance bioavailability.

This combination can increase curcumin absorption by a remarkable 2,000%. 

Curcumin and Turmeric Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

Turmeric consumed as a spice in food is very safe.

Turmeric supplements can cause nausea and diarrhea, especially in high doses.

Both turmeric and curcumin supplements have quite a number of possible side effects, interactions, and warnings.

These supplements can interact with medicines like aspirin, NSAID painkillers, statins, diabetes drugs, blood pressure medicines, and blood thinners.

They may also interact with supplements with blood-thinning properties such as ginkgo, ginseng, and garlic. 

And be aware that the piperine often added to curcumin supplements can also increase the side effects of a number of drugs. 

However, you can increase the bioavailability of curcumin and turmeric supplements by taking them with phosphatidylserine instead.

If you take any medications, check for possible interactions between them and turmeric or curcumin with a reputable online interaction checker.

3. Acetyl-l-Carnitine: For More Mental Energy

Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALCAR) is an amino acid that increases both mental and physical energy.

It acts as a powerful antioxidant, protecting your brain from free radical damage. 

ALCAR is a precursor of acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter of memory and learning.

It also increases the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine, both of which play a role in depression.

In fact, acetyl-l-carnitine is a fast-acting antidepressant that usually brings some relief within a week. 

It improves mental clarity, focus, mood, processing speed, and memory and has strong anti-aging effects on the brain. 

It can be a helpful adjunct for chronic fatigue syndrome, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s

One study found that acetyl-l-carnitine stabilizes the proteins which produce the protein tangles found in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients. 

It increases the insulin sensitivity of cells to help them utilize blood glucose, the brain’s main fuel source. 

There’s evidence that it may prevent brain damage from excessive alcohol intake


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Suggested Acetyl-l-Carnitine Dosage

The generally recommended dose range is from 500 to 2,000 mg per day. 

When buying a brain supplement, be sure to look for acetyl-l-carnitine rather than l-carnitine.

ALCAR is a form of l-carnitine that more readily crosses into the brain to better support cognitive function

Acetyl-l-Carnitine Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

Acetyl-l-carnitine is generally considered safe but there are a few side effects, mainly digestive upset, restlessness, or a fishy body odor. 

If you take a blood thinner such as coumadin, avoid taking ALCAR as it can increase the drug’s blood-thinning effects.

There’s some concern that acetyl-l-carnitine may interfere with thyroid hormone, so discuss this with your doctor if you have low thyroid function. 

4. Bacopa: For Balanced Brain Chemistry

Bacopa (Bacopa monnieri) is a traditional Ayurvedic herbal remedy.

Its use as a nerve and brain tonic for improving memory, learning, and concentration dates back at least 3,000 years. 

bacopa monnieri
Bacopa monnieri flowers.

According to legend, it was used by ancient scholars to help them memorize lengthy hymns and scriptures.

It increases cerebral blood flow, delivering more oxygen, nutrients, and glucose to the brain. 

When tested against two very different kinds of cognitive enhancers — the herbal remedy ginseng and the popular smart drug Modafinil — bacopa came out on top

Bacopa is among the handful of herbs that are considered adaptogenic.

Adaptogens have the ability to lower stress and increase energy without being either sedating or stimulating.

In this way, adaptogens act like a thermostat to keep you in an emotional comfort zone.


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Bacopa works in part by balancing the levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, and GABA, while reducing the level of the stress hormone cortisol. 

It’s this ability to restore balance that makes bacopa an excellent choice if you are looking for a natural cognitive-enhancing supplement that also alleviates stress, anxiety, or depression. 

Suggested Bacopa Dosage

So far, about a dozen bioactive compounds have been found in bacopa, the most important being bacopaside A and bacopaside B. 

Look for a supplement with a standardized content of 55% bacopasides.

A typical dose is 300 mg of bacopa per day. 

One brand of bacopa that has studies to support its use as a cognitive enhancer is KeenMind.

Bacopa Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

Bacopa is considered very safe, even safe enough to give to children.

Side effects of bacopa are rare, but the most common ones are dry mouth and digestive upset. 

These can largely be avoided by taking it along with meals. 

Traditionally, bacopa is administered as a food that is cooked with ghee (clarified butter).

Bacopa should not be combined with antihistamines, antidepressants, glaucoma medications, drugs taken for Alzheimer’s, or thyroid hormones.

5. American Ginseng: Best-in-Class Brain Booster

Ginseng may be a classical Asian herb, but American ginseng is now considered the best in the world.

American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) belongs to the same genus as Asian ginseng (Panax ginseng), but is a separate species with a distinct ginsenoside profile.

ginseng root in a bowl
Ginseng root.

In an ironic twist, the Chinese now prefer American ginseng for its superior quality and ability to upgrade brain function

American ginseng is mostly cultivated in Wisconsin and Canada, where growing conditions are ideal for encouraging a higher concentration of ginseng’s active ingredients, ginsenosides

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Cereboost is a patent-pending extract derived from American ginseng with clinical studies to support its effectiveness as a cognitive enhancer.

Study participants given a mental aptitude test after ingesting Cereboost performed significantly better.

It worked quickly to improve memory, mental clarity, and sharpness within just a few hours of taking a single dose. 

Cereboost is neuroprotective and increases acetylcholine levels

American ginseng is a better choice than Asian ginseng if you tend towards anxiety since it is thought to be less stimulating

Like bacopa, American ginseng acts as an adaptogen, promoting physical strength and mental energy while dialing down the damaging effects of stress.

It also reduces postprandial hypoglycemia, a common underlying cause of anxiety

Suggested American Ginseng Dosage

Standard doses have not been established, but a typical dose of American ginseng is 100 to 200 mg daily. 

Brain supplements that contain Cereboost usually contain 200 mg of American ginseng.

American ginseng supplements are available as capsules, tablets, powders, and liquid extracts.

You can also buy tea bags, loose bulk tea, and dried roots that are used to make tea or are added to cooked foods.

American Ginseng Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

American ginseng can cause some side effects such as diarrhea, itching, insomnia, headache, and nervousness. 

Since its ginsenosides can act like estrogen, do not take American ginseng if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or have a hormone-sensitive cancer.

Discuss taking American ginseng with your doctor if you take an MAOI antidepressant, diabetic medication, or immune suppressant since it can affect the effectiveness of these drugs.

6. Alpha-GPC: Top Memory Enhancer

Alpha-GPC (alpha-glycerophosphocholine) is a synthetic form of choline.

Choline is an essential nutrient for brain development, healthy brain cells, and neurotransmitter formation.

It is a precursor of acetylcholine, the brain chemical of learning and memory.

Unfortunately, choline supplements do not effectively enter the brain.

However, the alpha-GPC form quickly and efficiently moves choline into the brain where it’s used to form brain cell membranes and stimulate the growth of new brain cells.

Alpha-GPC also increases levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), the neurotransmitter associated with relaxation

Signs of low GABA include being easily overstimulated, overwhelmed, and stressed out.

Alpha-GPC studies show that it consistently improves memory and attention span in people of all ages, while warding off age-related mental decline. 

Alpha-GPC is sold as a memory supplement throughout much of the world.

In Europe, it is used as a prescription medication for Alzheimer’s, helping to increase acetylcholine levels. 

Alzheimer’s patients’ have low levels of acetylcholine along with fewer acetylcholine receptors. 

It can also help the brain recover after a stroke or transient ischemic attack

Suggested Alpha-GPC Dosage

A typical dose of alpha-GPC is 300 to 600 mg, but the ideal standard dose is yet to be determined

In almost all studies on mental decline, participants were given 400 mg, three times a day. 

Alpha-GPC Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

Alpha-GPC is generally considered safe, but possible side effects include headache, insomnia, dizziness, mental confusion, heartburn, and skin rash. 

Alpha-GPC supplements are derived from either soy or eggs, two of the most common food allergens, so be mindful if you have a known food allergy.

The only known drug interaction is with scopolamine, a drug often used for motion sickness and for nausea following surgery.

7. Lion’s Mane: A “Smart” Mushroom

Lion’s mane (Hericium erinaceus), also known as yamabushitake, is an edible mushroom native to parts of Asia, North America, and Europe.

It’s been used medicinally and as a culinary delicacy for thousands of years.

lion's mane mushroom growing on a log
Lion’s mane mushroom.

Now it’s sold as a brain supplement.

It’s been said that lion’s mane can impart “nerves of steel and the memory of a lion.”

World-renowned fungi expert Paul Stamets calls it the “first smart mushroom.” 

Lion’s mane is a popular nootropic — a substance that improves mental functions such as memory, intelligence, motivation, attention, and concentration while simultaneously making your brain healthier.

Lion’s mane excels at improving cognitive function and treating neurological disorders.

It contains two unique groups of compounds, hericenones and erinacines, that stimulate the formation of nerve growth factor (NGF). 

NGF is a protein that is crucial to the growth and maintenance of certain types of neurons.

Lion’s mane can also be helpful for anxiety, depression, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s. 

Suggested Lion’s Mane Dosage

Optimal dosages have not yet been established, but a typical dose of lion’s mane extract is 1,000 mg taken three times a day. 

In one study, seniors with mild cognitive impairment, which can be a precursor to dementia, experienced significant cognitive improvement taking 3,000 mg of lion’s mane powder daily. 

Lion’s mane is available in capsules, powder, liquid tincture, or tea.

You may even find it fresh in Asian or gourmet food stores.

Lion’s Mane Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

Lion’s mane is extremely safe.

The only known side effect is itchy skin which is believed to be caused by the increase in nerve growth factor. 

Lion’s mane mushroom may not be safe to mix with supplements that affect blood clotting.

8. Magnesium L-Threonate: Patented Brain Mineral

Magnesium is an essential dietary mineral required for over 600 metabolic functions

Unfortunately, fewer than half of us get adequate magnesium from the food we eat. 

Signs of magnesium deficiency include brain fog, lack of focus, inability to handle stress, insomnia, caffeine addiction, and generally feeling tired but wired.

Magnesium supplementation has proven beneficial for numerous mental health conditions including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, ADHD, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and substance abuse

There are many forms of magnesium to choose from, but only magnesium l-threonate readily crosses the blood-brain barrier

Its unique ability to permeate brain cell membranes and elevate magnesium concentrations in the brain makes it an excellent choice for improving memory, attention, depression, and anxiety. 

Look for supplements that contain Magtein, a patented brand of magnesium l-threonate that’s a proven cognitive enhancer.

Suggested Magnesium Dosage

The Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) for magnesium is generally 420 mg for men and 320 mg for women, but that can vary slightly depending on age. 

The manufacturer of Magtein suggests taking 1,000 mg twice a day for optimal cognitive benefits. 

This dose isn’t as high as it sounds, since only a fraction of Magtein is elemental magnesium, the amount of pure magnesium available in a supplement.

According to the Original Formula Magtein label, 2,000 mg of magnesium l-threonate yields just 144 mg of elemental magnesium. 

Magnesium Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

Magnesium can cause digestive upset and loose stools, particularly if you take too much or take inexpensive forms of magnesium such as magnesium oxide or magnesium sulfate.

You should not take these anyway since they are the least bioavailable forms of magnesium

Magnesium sulfate, the kind found in Epsom salts, can cause dramatic diarrhea and disrupt your electrolyte balance, leading to a potentially serious condition known as hypermagnesemia

Drug Informer, a University of Utah project, reports that magnesium sulfate can trigger brain fog, short-term memory loss, amnesia, blackouts, and other kinds of mental distress. 

There are no known side effects of magnesium l-threonate. 

Discuss taking magnesium with your doctor if you take antibiotics, high blood pressure medications, osteoporosis medications, or muscle relaxants. 

Magnesium can affect the effectiveness of these drugs. 

9. Tryptophan: Proven Mood Booster

Tryptophan is an essential amino acid that’s a precursor to the neurotransmitter serotonin.

Serotonin plays a large role in mood, sleep, learning, and appetite control.

diagram of the tryptophan-serotonin synthesis pathway
The pathway of tryptophan-serotonin synthesis. (Image courtesy of Dr. Katherine Chung)

A low serotonin level is widely believed to be a major cause of depression.

The most popular antidepressant medications like Prozac and Zoloft are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), thought to work by making more serotonin available in the brain.

You can increase serotonin levels naturally by providing more of its building blocks in the form of tryptophan.

By increasing serotonin levels, tryptophan can improve the quality of life for those with a wide variety of brain-related and mental health issues.

Tryptophan has been found to be as effective for depression as antidepressant drugs in numerous trials.

Tryptophan has been found useful for reducing symptoms of anxiety disorders, panic attacks, insomnia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, seasonal affective disorder, and more

Low levels of tryptophan are associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Children with ADHD have 50% lower than normal blood levels of tryptophan. 

Low tryptophan has also been linked to memory loss and other measures of cognitive impairment.

Suggested Tryptophan Dosage

There is no official recommended dosage for tryptophan and suggested doses vary widely.

As little as 250 mg has been found to improve the quality of sleep.

On the other hand, Mayo Clinic recommends up to 12 grams per day for depression. 

Most supplement manufacturers suggest a daily dose of 1,000 to 1,500 mg. 

We suggest starting with 500 mg a day, then working up to a higher dose.

Tryptophan Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

The most common tryptophan side effects are digestive upset, loss of appetite, headache, and drowsiness. 

Tryptophan should NOT be taken with SSRI antidepressants.

When taken together, they can cause a potentially serious condition known as serotonin syndrome.

Tryptophan should also not be taken with drugs with a sedating effect such as Ambien, Ativan, Valium, and Ultram.

10. Vinpocetine: A Natural “Smart Drug”

Vinpocetine is a relatively new brain booster that blurs the line between brain supplement and smart drug.

It’s based on vincamine, a chemical found in periwinkle (Vinca minor). 

periwinkle flowers
Periwinkle, source of vincamine.

This flowering vine has been used since medieval times to treat headaches, memory loss, and vertigo. 

Vinpocetine supplements are usually taken to improve memory, overcome brain fog, increase mental clarity, protect the brain against aging, and promote overall mental well-being. 

It rapidly enters the brain to increase blood flow, decrease brain inflammation, protect against free radical damage, and balance neurotransmitter levels

Vinpocetine’s ability to protect the brain from degeneration makes it a potential treatment for Alzheimer’s. 

It increases blood flow to the brain and improves the brain’s ability to use glucose, its main source of energy, after a stroke. 

In some parts of the world, vinpocetine is available by prescription only. 

Here in the US, it’s available as a brain supplement, at least for now. 

The FDA has initiated proceedings to take vinpocetine off the shelves, not because there have been any safety issues, but because they believe it should be classified as a drug rather than as a supplement. 

While studies show that vinpocetine looks like a promising treatment for mental decline, dementia, and Alzheimer’s, there’s not a lot of research yet to back up claims that it makes cognitively healthy adults smarter.

Suggested Vinpocetine Dosage

Most clinical studies on vinpocetine have used doses of 5 to 20 mg, three times daily. 

A good place to start is to take 5 mg with each meal

Then you can work up to as high as 20 mg with each meal for maximum neuroprotective benefits.

Avoid taking vinpocetine on an empty stomach since it’s absorbed up to 100% better with food.

Vinpocetine Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

Vinpocetine is generally considered safe for most people.

Potential side effects include digestive upset, insomnia, headache, dizziness, nervousness, skin rash, and flushing. 

It’s advised that you avoid vinpocetine if you take a blood thinner like warfarin (Coumadin) or any over-the-counter medications that can interfere with clotting such as ibuprofen or naproxen. 

Additionally, it’s been deemed unsafe for pregnant women since it can increase the risk of miscarriage. 

11. Huperzine A: Powerful Memory Remedy

Chinese club moss (Huperzia serrata) is a small plant native to parts of Asia that’s a traditional Chinese treatment for improving memory and circulation and reducing inflammation. 

The main active compound in Chinese club moss is an alkaloid called huperzine A.

chinese club moss
Chinese club moss, source of huperzine A.

Huperzine A works mainly by raising levels of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved with learning, memory, sleep cycle regulation, and other brain functions. 

It operates by the same mechanism as the popular Alzheimer’s drug Aricept.

They both inhibit an enzyme (acetylcholinesterase) that deactivates acetylcholine.

Huperzine A shows promise for delaying symptoms of Alzheimer’s, especially in the early stages. 

It protects the patient’s brain against free radical damage and toxins while promoting new brain cell generation.  

Huperzine A is so powerful that it’s been given the status of an approved drug for treating vascular dementia and Alzheimer’s in China. )

Suggested Huperzine A Dosage

The general recommended dosage is 50 to 200 mcg daily and can be taken on an empty stomach. 

Huperzine A Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

Although huperzine A is a naturally occurring compound, it’s not without side effects.

Reported side effects are significant and include insomnia, anxiety, nausea, diarrhea, blurred vision, slurred speech, restlessness, anorexia, muscle twitching, cramps, incontinence, high blood pressure, and slowed heart rate. 

Huperzine A does not mix well with antihistamines, antidepressants, the Alzheimer’s drug Aricept, or the motion sickness drug scopolamine. 

12. Ginkgo: Timeless Brain Tonic

Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) is one of the most widely used natural remedies in the world. 

It has a long history of use in traditional Chinese medicine.

ginkgo leaves and pills and mortar and pestle
Ginkgo leaves and supplement tablets.

Ginkgo increases circulation to the brain, balances brain chemistry, and protects the brain from free radical damage. 

It’s considered so effective that it’s sometimes prescribed as a medication in Europe.

But not all of ginkgo’s reported benefits have held up to the latest scientific scrutiny.

Two major studies concluded that ginkgo does not improve memory or other cognitive functions in healthy adults

But this does not make ginkgo useless as a brain supplement.

And, of course, you may decide that its long history of use outweighs the latest scientific findings.

Ginkgo has been proven beneficial for treating stress and anxiety by lowering levels of the stress hormone cortisol. 

It reliably improves short-term memory in seniors. 

Ginkgo reduces ADHD symptoms in children and teens, but not as effectively as the ADHD drug Ritalin.

It can increase the turnover of both serotonin and dopamine, neurotransmitters linked to depression. 

And lastly, for those diagnosed with dementia or Alzheimer’s, ginkgo shows promise for improving memory and day-to-day quality of life

Suggested Ginkgo Dosage

A typical ginkgo dose is 40 to 120 mg, three times a day. 

Start with a low dose and take with meals to avoid gastrointestinal distress.

Ginkgo Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

Known ginkgo side effects include digestive upset, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, and restlessness. 

Ginkgo should not be taken with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants such as Prozac or Zoloft, since together they can cause serotonin syndrome

Ginkgo reacts badly with a slew of medications. lists nearly 300 of them.

If you take any medications, talk to your doctor or pharmacist, or visit to check for Ginkgo biloba drug interactions before taking this supplement.

13. DHA: Critical Brain Cell Building Block

DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) is an omega-3 essential fatty acid that is highly recommended if you want optimal brain performance.

Omega-3 deficiency is widespread, linked to dozens of diseases, and contributes to 96,000 preventable deaths per year. 

fish oil capsules
Capsules of fish oil, a source of DHA.

Omega-3 fats are so important to health that more than 40,000 studies have been published on their health benefits! 

And of all the omega-3s, DHA is the most important one for your brain.

Omega-3 fats are harder to get from diet alone since few people regularly eat its main dietary sources — wild-caught, cold water, oily fish like salmon, herring, mackerel, and sardines. 

DHA is a major building block of the cerebral cortex, the part of the brain where higher level functions occur.

It also plays an important role in brain cell communication.

Low DHA levels have been linked to depression, ADHD, serious psychiatric disorders, and a measurable decrease in brain volume

Memory loss, depression, mood swings, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and attention deficit disorder have all been found to improve with DHA supplementation.

Seniors with high levels of DHA have a significantly reduced risk of developing dementia and Alzheimer’s. 

Suggested DHA and Fish Oil Dosages

DHA is sometimes sold as a single-ingredient supplement, but most commonly it is included as a major component in fish oil or krill oil supplements.

Experts generally recommend 500 to 1,000 mg of total omega-3s per day to maintain health and avoid deficiency, but therapeutic doses up to 3 grams are generally considered safe. 

A US National Institutes of Health workshop that included omega-3 experts from around the world determined that 220 mg of DHA is the minimum dose that should be taken for optimal health. 

But it’s safe and often beneficial to take more — up to 1,000 mg per day.

DHA and Fish Oil Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

DHA is considered generally safe.

It may increase blood sugar in diabetics and lower blood pressure in those with hypertension which can alter your need for medication.

Fish oil can increase the risk of bleeding when taken with aspirin or blood thinners, but DHA alone does not seem to affect blood clotting

14. Phosphatidylserine: Versatile Brain Enhancer

Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a phospholipid naturally found in high concentrations in the brain.

It is also a popular brain supplement for boosting memory, cognition, concentration, and learning.

Phosphatidylserine is a major component of human brain cell membranes.

By supporting brain cell membrane integrity, PS helps to keep toxins, pathogens, and other unwanted invaders out of your brain.

It normalizes levels of cortisol to reduce the effects of stress. 

Phosphatidylserine is safe and effective for brains of all ages.

Clinical trials have found it can improve ADHD symptoms in children

It is a favorite memory supplement used by students to perform better on their exams.

Phosphatidylserine is protective against mental decline, can improve mood, and can help with depression, especially in seniors

Numerous studies conclude that phosphatidylserine may be an effective treatment for Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia. 

Notably, phosphatidylserine is the only brain supplement that’s received a qualified stamp of approval from the FDA for age-related cognitive decline and dementia in seniors.

Suggested Phosphatidylserine Dosage

The general recommended dose for phosphatidylserine is 100 mg, three times a day

But doses of twice that, 600 mg per day, are considered safe

Phosphatidylserine is one of the few brain supplements with dosages determined for children.

A typical dose for children and young teens is 200 mg per day.

Phosphatidylserine Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

The most common side effects of phosphatidylserine supplements are digestive upset and insomnia, particularly with high dosages.

Phosphatidylserine should be avoided if you take blood thinners or anti-inflammatory drugs

It can decrease the effectiveness of antihistamines and antidepressants.

Do not take phosphatidylserine with drugs prescribed for Alzheimer’s, such as Aricept, Exelon, and Razadyne, without talking to your doctor. 

Phosphatidylserine can alter these drugs’ effectiveness and magnify their side effects.

Phosphatidylserine supplements are almost always derived from soy.

If soy is a food you avoid, look for one extracted from sunflower oil instead.

15. L-Theanine: Meditation in a Cup or Capsule

L-theanine is an amino acid found in black and green teas (Camellia sinensis) that offers a truly unique set of brain benefits.

One of the ways it works is by altering brainwave patterns. 

pot of green tea
Green tea, a source of l-theanine.

L-theanine induces a desirable brainwave state of relaxed attentiveness similar to that achieved during meditation

It sharpens focus, reduces stress, and imparts a sense of overall well-being.

L-theanine raises levels of several key brain chemicals — serotonin, dopamine, and GABA — to promote recall, learning, motivation, and positive mood. 

It makes you more resilient to stress and helps quell anxiety

It won’t make you drowsy, but can improve your quality of sleep

Interestingly, l-theanine works synergistically with caffeine.

The combination of caffeine and l-theanine can help you perform mentally demanding tasks better than caffeine alone

And since l-theanine is relaxing, it won’t leave you feeling edgy.

This unique caffeine-enhancing property makes l-theanine a popular supplement for those seeking optimal mental performance.

Some college students and biohackers use this caffeine-theanine combination in place of smart drugs.

L-theanine improves memory and cognition in seniors, even those diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). 

Its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties make it neuroprotective as well. 

Suggested L-Theanine Dosage

The general recommended dosage for l-theanine is 200 to 400 mg per day. 

Some people experience noticeable benefits with as little as 50 mg and almost everyone experiences some degree of relaxation with a 400 mg dose. 

A mix of l-theanine and caffeine is a popular nootropic “stack” for boosting mood, focus, concentration, and alertness

Typical ratios of l-theanine to caffeine range from 1:1 (2oo mg each) to 4:1 (200 mg theanine for every 50 mg of caffeine). 

One popular brand of l-theanine is Suntheanine.

This is a patented brand of pure theanine often used in studies when a standardized formula is required.

L-Theanine Side Effects, Interactions, and Warnings

L-theanine supplements are considered very safe. 

The few reported adverse reactions include headache, dizziness, and upset stomach. 

If you take high blood pressure medication, use l-theanine cautiously, since it can decrease your blood pressure and change your need for medication. 

Brain Supplements: Take the Next Step

There are many reasons to take a brain supplement.

It can help improve mood, memory, and concentration as well as protect against brain aging and cognitive decline. And much more.

Now that you’ve learned about 15 substances that are proven both safe and effective, you may be eager to try some of them, but unsure of where to begin.

There are two approaches you can take.

Take a Single-Ingredient Supplement

Does one supplement stand out from the rest in specifically addressing your issues? 

For example, if you want better mental performance AND stress and anxiety relief, a bacopa supplement would fit the bill. 

One benefit of taking a single-ingredient supplement is that you can easily determine if it helps you. 

If it doesn’t, then you can try something else. 

To learn more about the individual supplements discussed above, see our “Related” article links. 

Take a Multi-Ingredient Supplement

A main benefit of multi-ingredient supplements is that they contain multiple brain-boosting substances that work together for even greater benefits. 

There are innumerable options in the marketplace; unfortunately, most are poor quality and are created by marketers, not brain health experts. 

It’s not easy to tell the good supplements from the bad, and it takes some time to investigate.

To help you, we’ve thoroughly researched the brain supplement market.

We recommend Mind Lab Pro.

This brain supplement has been created by neuroscientists who perform their own in-house research and development.

It’s made in pharmaceutical-grade facilities in the US.

Mind Lab Pro’s formula includes several of the substances discussed in this article, including bacopa, citicoline, lion’s mane, phosphatidylserine, and l-theanine

It also uses the best forms of its individual ingredients (like Cognizin® and Suntheanine®) and meets high standards for purity and safety.

See our MIND LAB PRO review.