Memory slipping? Is thinking slower, less sharp? An acetylcholine deficiency may be why. We review the best choline-based, herbal and nutrient supplements.
Acetylcholine was the first neurotransmitter to be discovered and is the most prevalent one in the human nervous system.
It is known mainly as the “memory molecule” that helps you learn, focus, and stay mentally alert, but it has a lot of other roles as well.
But acetylcholine also promotes a positive mood while modulating negative emotions like fear and anger.
And it enhances brain plasticity, a neurological trait that allows your brain to stay mentally flexible throughout your lifetime.
Acetylcholine Deficiency: Reasons for Acetylcholine Supplements
There are several excellent reasons to consider taking an acetylcholine supplement.
You may be trying to improve your memory now or want to proactively preserve your memory going forward.
Maybe you are trying to overcome typical signs of acetylcholine deficiency such as constantly misplacing items, the inability to follow plots and conversations, or ADHD.
The brains of Alzheimer’s patients contain only a small fraction of what’s considered to be a normal level of acetylcholine. (4)
Thus, Alzheimer’s drugs like Aricept work by blocking acetylcholine breakdown.
Acetylcholine supplements are especially important to consider if you don’t normally consume foods that provide the basic building blocks of acetylcholine.
This includes anyone who follows a low-fat diet or doesn’t eat eggs or meat.
Dietary fat and the choline found in animal foods are needed to synthesize acetylcholine.
World-renowned functional medicine expert Dr. Datis Kharrazian explains in his book Why Isn’t My Brain Working? that the brain will start to literally consume itself to get the building blocks it needs to make acetylcholine.
How Acetylcholine Deficiency Impacts Memory
The need for acetylcholine supplementation is especially critical if you take any anticholinergic medications.
Anticholinergics are substances that block the action of acetylcholine.
A good rule of thumb is that any medication that starts with “anti” is likely to lower your acetylcholine level.
This includes antidepressants, antipsychotics, antibiotics, antispasmodics, antihypertensives, and even over-the-counter antihistamines.
You’ll find a full list of anticholinergics in 20 Kinds of Drugs That Cause Memory Loss.
Supplements That Increase Acetylcholine
You can’t take acetylcholine directly, but you can take supplements that increase its release by the body, slow its breakdown, encourage its reuptake, stimulate its receptors, or provide the resources to create it. (5)
Substances, either drugs or supplements, that increase acetylcholine are described as cholinergic.
The best cholinergic supplements fall into three main categories — choline-based, herbal remedies, and nutrients.
A few of these are so powerful that they are sometimes prescribed as drugs.
Below, we’ll also provide recommended dosages and warn you about a few popular cholinergic supplements that are best avoided.
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Choline Enhancing Supplements
Choline is a nutrient related to the vitamin B complex that is a precursor of acetylcholine. (6)
An estimated 90% of us don’t get enough choline from our diets.
Choline is found mainly in egg yolks, beef, and seafood. (7)
So choline supplementation is a great idea, at least in theory.
But not all choline supplements increase choline in the brain or raise acetylcholine levels. (8)
Here’s a look at those that do.
#1 Alpha GPC
Alpha GPC (L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine) is a highly bioavailable form of choline that readily enters the brain.
It’s considered one of the best forms of choline for raising acetylcholine levels.
Alpha GPC is a naturally occurring compound so ideal for human brains that it’s a component in breast milk. (9)
Alpha GPC enhances memory and cognition and slows the rate of cognitive decline in the elderly.
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It shows promise as a potential Alzheimer’s treatment. (10)
In Europe, it is prescribed for increasing acetylcholine levels in Alzheimer’s patients. (11)
In the United States, it’s available as an over-the-counter memory supplement.
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Citicoline is a naturally occurring compound found in every cell in your body and in particularly high concentrations in the brain.
It is a choline precursor that increases acetylcholine. (14)
Now it’s available as a supplement that offers impressive brain benefits.
It improves blood flow to the brain and encourages the growth of new brain cells. (17)
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Citicoline goes by a few other names, most commonly CDP-choline.
We recommend looking for a supplement that contains the brand name Cognizin.
Cognizin is a patented, highly bioavailable form of citicoline that’s been clinically tested in humans. (21)
Citicoline: An Impressive Brain Protector and Enhancer
Choline Supplements to Avoid
If you buy a supplement that simply states “choline” on the label, it will almost certainly be choline bitartrate.
But there is no evidence that this inexpensive form of choline reliably enters the brain or enhances cognitive functions. (24)
DMAE (dimethylaminoethanol) is another precursor to choline that’s found in some brain supplements.
You may be familiar with it as a popular active ingredient in skin care products.
And since it’s been linked to neural tube defects, it’s not advised for use by women during their childbearing years.
For these reasons, neither choline bitartrate nor DMAE are recommended choline-based compounds for raising acetylcholine levels.
SUBJECT: Sharper thinking, better mood
Nootropic brain supplements are growing ever more popular.
Nootropics are substances that can make you more focused, motivated, positive, and productive.
That sounds good, but many of the products containing these substances are neither helpful nor harmless.
We've looked closely at the market and found a supplement that combines many of the most proven, effective, and natural brain enhancers we know.
Deane & Dr. Pat
Herbal Acetylcholine-Boosting Supplements
There are a surprising number of herbal supplements that work, in part, by increasing acetylcholine.
Most of them have long histories as proven brain boosters.
Some of these are so safe that they’ve historically been consumed as food.
But the effect of a few of them are more like drugs than supplements and should be taken with extreme caution.
Bacopa (Bacopa monnieri) has been used for thousands of years as a brain tonic in Chinese and Indian medicine traditions.
Bacopa is considered an adaptogen.
Adaptogens are herbs that neither sedate nor stimulate but bring the body into a state of balance known as homeostasis.
One of the ways bacopa accomplishes this is by balancing levels of neurotransmitters, including acetylcholine, dopamine, and serotonin. (28)
Bacopa can offset the memory loss caused by anticholinergic drugs. (29)
When tested against the popular smart drug Modafinil, bacopa worked even better to improve memory, accuracy, and processing speed. (30)
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Bacopa is an excellent choice if you are under a lot of stress or experience insomnia or anxiety.
It is considered very safe and can even be given to children. (31)
A typical dose of bacopa is 50 to 100 mg three times per day.
For maximum absorption, take with meals. (32)
Be patient when taking bacopa.
It can take a few months to experience maximum benefits.
How Bacopa Benefits Balanced Brain Chemistry
#4 American Ginseng
American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius) is not as universally popular as its Asian cousin (Panax ginseng), but that may be about to change.
American ginseng is highly regarded for its superior quality and proven effectiveness as a cognitive enhancer. (33)
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In clinical trials, a single dose of Cereboost quickly improved memory, mental clarity, and sharpness within hours after ingestion. (35)
A typical dose of American ginseng or Cereboost is 100 to 200 mg daily. (36)
You can also take American ginseng as a tea or add dried slices to cooked foods.
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#5 Gotu Kola
Gotu kola (Centella asiatica) is in the same plant family as parsley and carrots and has been consumed as a food and tea in Asia for thousands of years.
It is used traditionally to treat disorders of the mind including memory loss, mental fatigue, anxiety, and depression.
Its Chinese name means “fountain of youth” as it is believed to promote longevity.
It is also a highly regarded brain supplement.
In human studies, it increased alertness by 100% and reduced anxiety and depression by 50%. (37)
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What makes gotu kola unique are compounds called triterpenes.
These steroid precursors work much like the drug Aricept to inhibit the breakdown of acetylcholine. (38)
They also prevent the formation of amyloid plaques that accumulate in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients. (39)
The word “kola” has many Westerners assuming that gotu kola contains caffeine.
But in fact it contains no caffeine and is a relaxant, not a stimulant.
The recommended gotu kola dosage for cognitive enhancement is 2,000 to 4,000 mg daily. (40)
How Gotu Kola Benefits Your Brain, Mood and Memory
#6 Huperzine A
According to Dr. Kharrazian (see above), it’s one of the most potent supplements for increasing acetylcholine and one of the first to consider for memory loss.
Huperzine A works by blocking the enzyme acetylcholinesterase which breaks down acetylcholine. (43)
It is sold as a single ingredient supplement but is also included in many nootropic and memory supplement formulas.
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Huperzine A is so powerful that it’s used as an approved drug for treating Alzheimer’s in China. (44)
The general recommended dosage is 50 to 200 mcg taken twice daily. (45)
Unlike the herbs mentioned previously which are very safe, huperzine A is more likely to cause side effects.
Potential side effects include digestive upset, anxiety, muscle cramps and twitching, and changes in blood pressure and heart rate. (46)
Huperzine A should not be taken with anticholinergic drugs like antihistamines, antidepressants, or the Alzheimer’s drug Aricept. (47)
Galantamine (Galanthus caucasicus) is another acetylcholine-promoting herbal supplement that should be taken with caution.
In the US, it’s been approved for treating Alzheimer’s and is available as both a prescription and over-the-counter remedy.
It is used to improve memory, reduce mental confusion, and slow the progression of Alzheimer’s. (48)
Galantamine’s list of side effects is very similar to those of huperzine A.
And there are literally hundreds of medications it reacts badly with as well. (49)
Before you give galantamine a try, we highly recommend discussing it with your doctor first.
More Herbal Acetylcholine Supplements
While the above supplements are the most potent cholinergics, there are many other herbal remedies that exhibit some ability to increase acetylcholine:
- ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) (50)
- holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) (51)
- ginger (Zingiber officinale) (52)
- cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) (53)
- arctic root (Rhodiola rosea) (54)
- turmeric (Curcuma longa) (55)
- saffron (Crocus sativus) (56)
- ginkgo biloba (57)
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Ginkgo Biloba Benefits and Your Memory
Nutrients That Increase Acetylcholine
Here in our last group, you’ll learn about two important nutrients that support acetylcholine synthesis, one vitamin and one amino acid.
#8 Vitamin B5
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) is one of the B complex vitamins.
“Pantothenic” means “from everywhere” because it’s found in so many food sources.
While all B vitamins are essential for healthy brain function, vitamin B5 is an essential cofactor required to turn choline into acetylcholine. (58)
That’s why you’ll sometimes find B5 added to alpha GPC, citicoline, and other brain supplements.
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Unlike most other vitamins, there is no RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance) for vitamin B5, but the general recommended daily dosage is 5 mg. (59)
If you take a good multivitamin, it very likely will meet or exceed this amount.
Key Vitamins for Memory: Deficiencies Are Common
Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC or ALCAR) is an amino acid well documented for its ability to improve alertness, focus, mental clarity, and mood. (60)
This amino acid is a precursor to acetylcholine and has a similar structure, so it binds with and activates acetylcholine receptors in the brain. (61)
Acetyl-l-carnitine has fast-acting antidepressant properties too, making it a good choice if you have memory loss and depression. (62)
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When shopping for an ALCAR supplement, avoid the less expensive version, l-carnitine, which cannot enter the brain. (63)
Acetyl-l-carnitine is generally safe but should not be taken with blood thinning medications.
Acetylcholine Supplement Side Effects
As with all neurotransmitters, too much can be as harmful as not enough.
It’s possible to raise your acetylcholine levels too high.
A common symptom of having overdone your acetylcholine boosting efforts is feeling depressed. (66)
Anecdotally, some people report headaches.
Dr. Kharrazian finds in his practice that patients can experience muscle tightness and cramps, nausea, and intense fatigue.
This is especially the case if people are too aggressive with supplementation.
He recommends that if you are suffering from doing too much too soon, simply scale back until your body adjusts.
Be particularly careful with the more potent supplements like huperzine A and galantamine.
And keep in mind that any supplement strong enough to be prescribed as a drug is also strong enough to cause side effects or have negative interactions with other substances.
Acetylcholine Supplements: The Bottom Line
Acetylcholine is the main neurotransmitter of memory and learning.
Adequate levels are essential for optimal brain health and function.
Diet, medications, and neurological disorders can contribute to low levels of this important brain chemical.
There are numerous supplements that can naturally raise acetylcholine levels to keep memory and thinking sharp, both now and in the future.
But note that these supplements vary widely in their safety and effectiveness.
If you are experiencing significant memory loss or are mixing supplements with prescription medications, don’t take chances — talk to your doctor.