Last updated June 20, 2022.
Edited and medically reviewed by Patrick Alban, DC. Written by Deane Alban.
GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter. A GABA deficiency can be a big factor contributing to stress and anxiety. Learn how to increase GABA naturally.
GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is one of the major neurotransmitters, chemicals that brain cells use to communicate with each other.
It is the primary inhibitory brain chemical, one that calms the mind and slows brain activity.
If you are easily overstimulated and often overwhelmed and stressed out, you might be deficient in GABA.
You can remedy this deficiency with the right supplements — those that contain synthesized GABA or that support the formation of GABA.
Signs and Symptoms of a GABA Deficiency
First, let’s take a look at the signs and symptoms of a low GABA level so that you can tell whether GABA supplementation makes sense for you.
When all your different brain chemicals are in balance, they help you feel appropriately motivated, productive, and energetic — or calm and relaxed — as circumstances dictate.
However, when you are deficient in GABA, your brain gets stuck in the “on” position, leaving you anxious, overwhelmed, and unable to relax.
" GABA acts like a sponge, soaking up excess adrenaline and other byproducts of stress.
GABA is so essential for feeling happy and relaxed that it’s been called “nature’s Valium.”
Here are some of the typical signs and symptoms of GABA deficiency:
- You’re filled with dread and have a knot in your stomach for no obvious reason.
- You’re frequently late because you’re too disorganized to make appointments on time.
- You’re often doing many things at once, but at the end of the day have little to show for your efforts.
- Even when things are going well, you find new things to worry about.
- You can’t relax and racing thoughts keep you up at night.
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- Your heart pounds or beats erratically for no reason.
- You rely on high carbohydrate foods, drugs, or alcohol to relax.
Low GABA is associated with numerous disorders with a stress component, including anxiety disorders, depression, insomnia, migraines, and fibromyalgia.
A GABA deficiency is also linked to autism, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and epilepsy.
While it is possible to have a genetic disorder of GABA metabolism, lifestyle is almost always the underlying cause of a GABA deficiency.
Harvard Medical School researcher Datis Kharrazian, PhD, DHSc, states in his book Why Isn’t My Brain Working? that stress, poor diet, lack of sleep, too much caffeine, and gluten intolerance are common culprits.
GABA Supplements for Stress, Anxiety, and Insomnia
Anti-anxiety drugs (Valium, Xanax) and sleeping pills (Ambien, Lunesta) work by helping GABA bind to the appropriate receptors in the brain.
Julia Ross, MA, the author of The Mood Cure, is a pioneer in the field of biochemical rebalancing.
She finds that “GABA acts like a sponge, soaking up excess adrenaline and other byproducts of stress.”
If you are looking to increase your GABA levels with supplements instead of drugs, you have two choices.
You can take a supplement that contains synthetic GABA.
Or you can take a supplement that enhances GABA function.
Here’s a look at both options.
The GABA Supplement Controversy
You might expect that taking a GABA supplement directly would be the better option, but this is not necessarily the case.
Many users swear that taking GABA helps their stress, anxiety, depression, and insomnia, while others find them useless.
There’s an ongoing controversy among the experts as to whether GABA supplements can work at all.
The scientific community generally concurs that synthesized GABA supplements should NOT work since GABA molecules are too large to cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the brain.
This barrier acts as the brain’s gatekeeper to keep out foreign substances.
There are several theories that may explain why GABA supplements seem to work some of the time in spite of this.
A long-standing explanation is that GABA supplements work only for those who have a compromised, or leaky, blood-brain barrier.
But new theories are coming to light.
Research suggests that certain areas of the brain allow small amounts of GABA to enter.
Another possibility is that GABA binds with receptors found in the peripheral nervous system, rather than those in the brain.
Taking a synthetic GABA supplement may or may not work for you.
The only way to know for sure is to give it a try.
GABA Supplements: Dosage, Side Effects, and Interactions
One additional concern about the use of synthetic GABA supplements is that little research has been done on them.
A standard dosage has yet to be determined, but most supplements come in 500-750 mg doses.
GABA supplements are generally considered safe, but common side effects include digestive upset, fatigue, muscle weakness, and shortness of breath.
GABA supplements should be used carefully with high blood pressure medications since they can cause blood pressure to drop too low.
They should be avoided by pregnant or breastfeeding women since their safety has not been determined.
Supplements That Support GABA Function Naturally
So, we see that taking supplemental GABA is not ideal for everyone.
Fortunately, there are a number of supplements that can increase GABA levels by supporting GABA function.
Most of them have a long history of safe and effective use for stress relief, anxiety, and insomnia.
These are the most effective GABA-boosting supplements:
Taurine — A Good Place to Start
As a GABA booster, taurine is an excellent place to start.
Taurine is an amino acid found in high concentrations in the brain where it acts much like a neurotransmitter by activating GABA receptors.
Additionally, taurine encourages the formation and release of GABA.
Magnesium — A Missing Mineral
Magnesium is an essential dietary mineral that is excellent for stress and anxiety.
Unfortunately, deficiency is common and it’s estimated 75% of us have subpar levels.
Food grown in magnesium-depleted soils, stress, age, medications, and underlying health conditions all contribute to widespread magnesium deficiency.
One way magnesium helps relieve stress is by binding to and stimulating GABA receptors in the brain.
If you feel “tired but wired,” have chronic insomnia, or often have nocturnal leg cramps, magnesium supplementation may be the answer.
L-Theanine — Change Your Brainwaves
L-theanine is a uniquely relaxing amino acid found in black, white, green, and oolong teas.
It increases the levels of GABA, and also serotonin and dopamine, two other important mood-altering neurotransmitters.
L-theanine is considered an adaptogen, a stress-relieving substance that improves resilience to stress of all kinds.
One of the interesting attributes of l-theanine is that it alters brainwave states similarly to meditation.
The alpha brainwave state is associated with relaxation and the beta state with stress and anxiety.
GABA increases alpha waves and decreases beta waves — and so does l-theanine.
To increase your intake of l-theanine, you can take theanine supplements or drink tea.
Three cups of green tea per day will not only produce a relaxing effect, but may also provide many additional health benefits.
Kava — An Ancient Stress Reliever
Kava (Piper methysticum), also called kava kava, was originally used in a ceremonial, relaxing tea by people in the South Pacific.
But it is now also a well-documented herbal remedy for serious stress relief.
Kava works, in part, by increasing GABA levels.
It’s been found to be as effective for anxiety and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) as the prescription anti-anxiety drugs Buspirone and Opipramol.
It also shows promise for treating ADHD by providing cognitive enhancement and relaxation effects.
You can take kava as a supplement or consume it the traditional way, as a tea.
Psychobiotics — Probiotics for the Brain
Probiotic supplements that provide mental health benefits are called psychobiotics.
One way psychobiotics enhance mental well-being is by producing neurotransmitters, including GABA.
Research has found over two dozen strains of bacteria, mostly strains of Lactobacillus, that produce GABA.
So far, Lactobacillus brevis has been found to be the best GABA synthesizer.
Other top GABA producers include Lactobacillus paracasei and Lactobacillus buchneri.
Lactobacillus rhamnosus increases GABA levels and facilitates direct communication between the gut and the brain via the vagus nerve.
These bacteria naturally reside in your intestines, but you can aid their formation and their production of GABA by taking a probiotic supplement.
Note that L. brevis and L. rhamnosus are readily found in many probiotic supplements, while L. paracasei and L. buchneri will be harder to find.
PharmaGABA — Made From Good Bacteria
Virtually all GABA supplements are synthetic, but PharmaGABA®, produced by the bacterium Lactobacillus hilgardii, is a natural form.
This beneficial bacteria naturally occurs in fermented dairy products and wine.
Two clinical trials have supported the health benefits of this supplement.
Once ingested, it purportedly binds to GABA receptors in the peripheral nervous system, where the “relaxation response” is elicited 5-30 minutes after ingestion.
Brands of GABA supplements that contain PharmaGABA include Swanson, Natural Factors, and Thorne.
Traditional Herbal Remedies
Naturally relaxing herbs such as hops, valerian, skullcap, lemon balm, chamomile, and passionflower have been used for centuries to induce a state of calm and help users sleep.
It’s no coincidence that these traditional herbal remedies have been found to work on GABA mechanisms in the brain.
You can take these herbs either individually or together.
They are available as pills, capsules, extracts, powders, and teas.
You can also use these herbs’ essential oils to soothe stress and relax.
(However, I’d take a pass on valerian essential oil. It smells awful.)
Two other traditional herbs that support GABA function include Ginkgo biloba, a popular memory supplement, and noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia), a remedy traditionally used to treat depression and anxiety.
Magnolia Bark — Traditional Chinese Remedy
Magnolia bark (Magnolia officinalis) is a versatile herbal remedy.
In traditional Chinese medicine, it is consumed as a tea known as Saiboku-to to treat nervous tension, anxiety, and insomnia.
Now it’s sold for cognitive enhancement, for stress relief, and as a sleep aid.
One of the ways it works is by binding with GABA receptors.
Vitamin B6 — A Needed Cofactor
In the body, the neurotransmitter GABA is synthesized from the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate and vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), an essential cofactor.
Inadequate levels of vitamin B6 contributes to stress in two ways.
First, it can lead to diminished GABA synthesis.
Too little B6 also leads to a buildup of glutamate which in turn can contribute to anxiety, chronic pain disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases.
The recommended RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance) for vitamin B6 is 1.3 mg/day for most adults.
Picamilon — The “Smart Drug” GABA Supplement
Picamilon is a highly bioavailable version of GABA supplementation.
Developed in the former Soviet Union, it combines GABA with niacin to create a substance that can enter the brain.
In Russia, it’s available as a prescription drug for treating stroke, depression, migraine headaches, and other neurological conditions.
Picamilon is used as a smart drug by college students who use it to boost memory, focus, and mental performance.
Others take it for anxiety, depression, high blood pressure, and migraine relief.
In the US, picamilon was available as a nutritional supplement, but a few years ago, it was pulled from store shelves by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
This was not because picamilon is unsafe, but because it does not meet the FDA’s official definition of a dietary supplement.
So, you won’t find picamilon at your local health food store or typical online vitamin stores, but you can still buy it from online nootropic sites based outside of the US.
We don’t recommend doing this, but if you do, be sure to choose your vendor carefully.
Foods That Contain GABA
To increase GABA, you don’t need to rely solely on supplements.
You can include GABA-rich foods in your diet.
You can get the most stress relief by taking GABA supplements and emphasizing healthy foods that support or contain GABA.
Researchers have found GABA in a surprising number of plant foods.
The top food sources are brown rice germ, sprouted grains, and spinach.
Other foods that naturally contain GABA include:
- brown rice
- shiitake mushrooms
- sprouted barley, beans, or brown rice
- sweet potatoes
One important group of foods we would add to this list is fermented foods like unpasteurized sauerkraut, kefir, and yogurt.
You’ve already read how probiotic supplements can positively impact your GABA levels; fermented foods can do the same.
A Word About GABA in Canned Drinks
Soda sales have been going down as energy drink sales have been going through the roof.
Now there is an emerging market of designer relaxation drinks like Just Chill, Zenify, Leilo, and Marley’s Mellow Mood.
They contain ingredients known for their calming effects, including GABA, theanine, kava, passionflower, and valerian.
But a Consumer Reports analysis found that these drinks contain only trace amounts of these active ingredients.
Definitely not enough to change your neurotransmitter levels or your mood.
If you are looking for a brain-enhancing drink that will increase GABA, consider brewing your own green tea.
It’s a more affordable and reliable way to reduce stress and improve brain function.
It contains the relaxing compound l-theanine and is lower in caffeine than most caffeinated drinks with only 25 mg per cup.
This low level of caffeine is important since caffeine inhibits the release of GABA.
The Best Exercise to Increase GABA
There’s one more way you can increase GABA naturally — with exercise.
Physical exercise is one of the best things you can do to promote happiness, relieve anxiety, and become more resilient to stress.
All kinds of exercise can increase your feel-good neurotransmitters, including GABA.
But yoga, in particular, stands out as a proven GABA booster.
One study found that just a single one-hour session of yoga increased GABA levels by 27%.
Yoga is a popular remedy for stress reduction and now there is at least one explanation for how it works.
GABA Supplements: Take the Next Step
GABA is our main inhibitory neurotransmitter.
It is also synthesized and sold as a supplement.
GABA deficiency manifests as a specific kind of stress best described as being overstimulated and overwhelmed.
Research shows that synthetic GABA supplements do not readily cross the blood-brain barrier, bringing their efficacy into question.
However, there are other mechanisms that could explain why these GABA supplements work for some people.
If you are leery of taking GABA supplements or find them unhelpful, you can experience similar benefits by taking GABA-supporting supplements and include GABA-rich foods in your diet.
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