These dopamine supplements are the safest, most effective way to boost dopamine levels to help treat problems with anxiety, depression, stress, and memory.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that activates the brain’s pleasure and reward centers.
Dopamine plays a huge role in motivation, mental energy, and zest for life.
Millions of people “self-medicate” with unhealthy substances and behaviors — sugar, caffeine, drugs, gambling, and other forms of thrill-seeking — to boost dopamine.
But the right supplements provide a healthy option for increasing dopamine safely and effectively instead.
How Natural Supplements Work to Increase Dopamine
You can’t buy dopamine over-the-counter in a pill.
Dopamine, in fact, is a potent drug injected intravenously for treating shock, heart attacks, serious low blood pressure, and slow heart rate. (1)
However, there are a number of amino acids, herbs, and other natural compounds that work by various mechanisms to increase dopamine levels in the brain.
Some increase the actual amount of dopamine available, while others keep dopamine from being broken down too quickly.
Other supplements increase the number of dopamine receptors or help existing receptors work better.
While researching dopamine boosters you may come across these terms.
Supplements and drugs that increase dopamine are called are dopaminergic (working on dopamine).
There are also many drugs known as dopamine agonists that activate dopamine receptors.
These are typically used for treating dopamine-related disorders such as Parkinson’s disease and restless leg syndrome.
Amino Acid Dopamine Supplements
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.
Some are precursors to neurotransmitters, including dopamine.
Here are three amino acids that can help boost your dopamine level.
There’s a reason l-tyrosine is the first dopamine supplement on our list.
This amino acid is a precursor to dopamine.
It is usually referred to as a non-essential amino acid, but more accurately, it is a conditional amino acid.
This means that your body can make some l-tyrosine but not always adequate amounts, especially during times of stress, exhaustion, or illness.
The top sources of l-tyrosine protein-rich foods animal products such as meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products. (2)
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There are several forms of tyrosine supplements available.
N-acetyl l-tyrosine (NALT) is often touted as the best form of l-tyrosine since it is highly soluble.
However, research shows that when compared to other forms of tyrosine, NALT is the least effective at raising blood levels of tyrosine. (3)
For this reason, I recommend sticking with the l-tyrosine form over NALT supplements.
SAM-e (s-adenosyl methionine) is a naturally occurring compound found in the body.
While technically not an amino acid, it is a direct metabolite of the amino acid l-methionine. (4)
It’s available as a supplement commonly taken for depression.
It works by increasing dopamine, serotonin, and other feel-good neurotransmitters. (5)
Depression is usually thought of as being caused by low serotonin, but there’s a lot of evidence that points to low dopamine as a factor.
This is particularly true in people who are not helped by taking serotonin-enhancing medications.
SAM-e works better for depression than St. Johns wort, another popular herb for depression.
It works as well as prescription antidepressants and it works faster, bringing relief usually within four days.
SAM-e is available as a supplement in the US.
It’s available as a prescription medication for depression in Russia, India, China, Italy, Germany, Vietnam, and Mexico. (6)
It’s particularly helpful for the depression associated with Parkinson’s and schizophrenia. (7)
SAM-e should not be mixed with levodopa, Demerol, or Ultram, or the over-the-counter cough remedy Robitussin DM. (8)
L-theanine is an amino acid found in green, black, and white tea.
It improves recall and learning, and boosts mood by increasing dopamine.
It’s one of the main reasons that green tea especially has the ability to put you into the state of calm focus. (9)
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Herbal Dopamine Supplements
Herbal remedies have been used for thousands of years.
Worldwide, more people rely on herbal remedies than modern medicine. (12)
Here are the top herbal supplements that increase dopamine.
Mucuna pruriens is a tropical legume that goes by many common names including velvet bean or cowhage.
The beans and pods contain l-dopa, a dopamine precursor. (13)
Mucuna supplements are sold to enhance mood, memory, overall brain health, anti-aging, and libido.
Mucuna is sometimes used to treat Parkinson’s, a disease characterized by low dopamine levels.
In one study, this herb was found to work even better than levodopa medications for Parkinson’s. (14)
However, Parkinson’s patients are advised not to self-medicate with Mucuna pruriens since it interacts with many medications. (15)
Ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) is one of the most popular herbal remedies in the world.
It has a long history of use for a wide variety of brain-related disorders — memory loss, poor concentration, mental confusion, depression, and anxiety.
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But that doesn’t mean it has no merit as a brain supplement.
Ginkgo also reduces stress and anxiety by lowering levels of cortisol. (23)
Bacopa monnieri is a traditional Ayurvedic herb that’s been used for thousands of years as a brain tonic to enhance memory, learning, and concentration. (24)
Bacopa is well recognized as an adaptogen, a substance that moderates the negative effects of stress. (25)
It works in part by balancing dopamine and serotonin, while reducing levels of the stress hormone cortisol.
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Arctic root (Rhodiola rosea) is another highly regarded adaptogen.
Like all adaptogens, it improves your ability to handle both physiological and psychological stress.
It increases levels of dopamine as well as serotonin and norepinephrine. (26)
If you have brain fog, trouble concentrating, and low energy combined with stress and anxiety, this is an excellent herb to try.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is renowned as one of the oldest medicinal herbs and one of the world’s most popular and versatile culinary spices.
Its powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties are mainly responsible for ginger’s healing power.
Of the 100+ compounds identified in ginger, 50 are antioxidants. (27)
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Ginger is rich in two specific kinds of antioxidants, shaogals and gingerols, that safeguard the brain from damaging free radicals.
Ginseng (Panax ginseng) is the quintessential Chinese medical herb.
Its botanical name means “panacea.”
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It is a main ingredient in the traditional Chinese herbal formula Kai Xin San.
It protects the brain cells that create dopamine from dying in substance abusers and Parkinson’s patients. (34)
Oregano (Origanum vulgare) is another culinary herb that doubles as a dopamine supplement.
Carvacrol increases dopamine and serotonin levels in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. (37)
Oregano oil can act as an antidepressant by increasing dopamine. (38)
It keeps dopamine recirculating and prevents its breakdown. (39)
Oregano oil has a positive effect on your brainwave patterns.
Test subjects took oregano oil for five days and then had their EEG recorded to measure changes in brainwave patterns.
They experienced increases in both alpha and beta brain waves. (40)
The alpha brainwave state is associated with relaxation and reflection, while the beta state increases alertness, active thinking, and focus.
Kava (Piper methysticum) is a traditional non-alcoholic ceremonial drink of the South Pacific.
It leaves those who consume it feeling relaxed, and even euphoric.
Reported kava benefits include an increase in overall well-being, cheerfulness, and sleep quality, and a reduction in stress. (41)
But kava also increases dopamine which is believed to be responsible for the feelings of euphoria. (44)
A single dose of kava can increase brain levels of dopamine an impressive 25-50% for 8 hours — at least in lab animals. (45)
Don’t mix kava and levodopa if you have Parkinson’s disease. (46)
Together, they can cause a worsening of symptoms.
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Naturally-Sourced Dopamine Supplements
The ingredients in this group of supplements are extracted or synthesized from natural compounds.
Curcumin is the main active ingredient in the Indian spice turmeric (Curcuma longa).
Curcumin increases both dopamine and serotonin, two brain chemicals linked to depression.
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Unlike many other substances, curcumin is safe to take along with antidepressant medications.
If you decide to try a curcumin supplement, look for one that has improved bioavailability, typically via piperine.
Piperine, a compound found in black pepper, increases curcumin absorption by an impressive 2,000%. (49)
Note that there are pros and cons to taking curcumin supplements versus consuming turmeric as a spice or as a tea.
Berberine is a compound extracted from many herbs including goldenseal, California poppy, and barberry. (50)
Its recorded use goes back 3,000 years in Chinese medicine.
It inhibits an enzyme that interferes with the conversion of tyrosine into dopamine. (51)
Thus, berberine supplements increase dopamine concentrations in some areas of the brain.
When large amounts are given to mice, their brain levels of dopamine increase by over 50%.
Resveratrol is a polyphenol found in red wine that may be responsible for at least some of wine’s cognitive benefits.
Resveratrol has been found to protect the neurons that create dopamine in Parkinson’s patients. (54)
Addictive substances of all kinds cause unnaturally high dopamine surges.
Resveratrol mitigates these swings in dopamine and so may help substance abusers by turning down their desire for their substance of choice. (55)
In his book Why Isn’t My Brain Working?, Datis Kharrazian, PhD, DHSc, stresses the importance of antioxidant supplements to protect the area of the brain where dopamine is synthesized, the substantia nigra.
He’s found the number one neuroprotective antioxidant to be blueberry extract.
Others he recommends are alpha-lipoic acid, selenium, and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) which all work by increasing levels of the master antioxidant glutathione.
While you could take a glutathione supplement directly, I don’t recommend it.
It is of little value since glutathione is broken down in the stomach before it gets absorbed.
Citicoline, also known as CDP choline, is a naturally occurring compound that’s commonly marketed as a nootropic to increase overall mental performance.
It was first developed for stroke victims and was originally available by prescription only. (56)
It is one of the few nutritional supplements powerful enough to therapeutically treat serious neurological disorders such as age-related memory loss, dementia, brain injury, Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. (57)
Citicoline works by increasing energy to the brain, protecting it from aging and toxins, and increasing levels of both dopamine and acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter most associated with memory and learning. (58)
Besides raising dopamine levels, citicoline also increases the number of dopamine receptors in the brain. (59)
Phosphatidylserine (PS) is a naturally occurring fat found in particularly high concentrations in the brain.
It’s also a highly regarded brain supplement.
It shows promise as an effective treatment for Alzheimer’s and dementia.
In fact, the FDA has granted phosphatidylserine manufacturers the unprecedented right to make these qualified claims on the bottle label and in their marketing materials: (63)
- “consumption of phosphatidylserine may reduce the risk of dementia in the elderly”
- “consumption of phosphatidylserine may reduce the risk of cognitive dysfunction in the elderly”
Phosphatidylserine acts as the brain’s “gatekeeper” by regulating nutrients coming into and waste going out of the brain.
It also normalizes levels of cortisol to reduce the wear and tear of stress. (64)
You can get phosphatidylserine from food, but it occurs mainly in foods few people care to eat, such as cow brains and chicken hearts.
Essential Core Nutrients That Support Dopamine
Everyone is looking for the “magic bullet,” the one pill that will make them feel better fast.
But no supplement formulated to increase dopamine can take the place of missing essential nutrients.
That’s why I always recommend addressing your basic nutritional needs first before trying any brain health supplement.
Vitamins D and B6, Magnesium, and Omega-3 Fats
One omega-3, DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), may be the single most important nutrient you can take for brain health throughout all stages of life.
It facilitates neurotransmitter activity and increases the number of neurotransmitter receptors, allowing the brain to optimize its use of mood-boosting brain chemicals including dopamine. (70)
Vitamin B6 is an important co-factor that’s essential for dopamine synthesis. (71)
Probiotics can increase dopamine since more than 50% of your dopamine resides in your intestines. (72)
Give your dopamine supplement a better chance to work by simultaneously addressing these basic nutritional needs.
Taking a good multivitamin that contains bioavailable magnesium and an omega-3 supplement is an excellent place to start.
The Use of Caffeine as a Dopamine Supplement
Lastly, there are few substances on the planet that do as much dopamine boosting as caffeine.
Caffeine is the most popular mind-altering substance in the world.
Unquestionably, many people with low dopamine self-medicate with caffeine, and this is not necessarily a bad thing.
Caffeine works by blocking the neurotransmitter adenosine which signals that you are tired, leading to a stimulant effect.
Much of the world gets their caffeine from tea.
Here in the US, we get ours mainly from coffee.
While I definitely do not recommend caffeine supplements which can be very dangerous, natural caffeine sources like coffee, tea, and yerba mate provide some amazing health benefits.
Coffee, for example, decreases your risk of many major diseases and can even help you live longer. (81)
So if your morning cuppa makes you feel happier, more energetic and productive, I won’t argue with your success.
But keep in mind that caffeine is addictive and is not a good choice for anyone with anxiety.
Interestingly, another controversial substance, nicotine, also shows promise as a surprisingly safe and effective dopamine-enhancing brain booster when isolated from tobacco.
Two Dopamine Supplements to Avoid
I hate to see people waste their money on supplements that don’t work as claimed, so here are two I recommend skipping.
Phenylethylamine (PEA) is a naturally occurring compound that stimulates the release of dopamine and norepinephrine.
But it’s pretty useless as a supplement.
Once it reaches your brain it has a half-life of only 30 seconds. (82)
5-HTP (5-hydroxytryptophan) is an amino acid that’s commonly sold for depression, anxiety, and insomnia.
Some dopamine-enhancing supplements contain 5-HTP as an active ingredient.
While 5-HTP boosts serotonin, it actually depletes dopamine. (83)
So skip any blend of supplements that contain 5-HTP if dopamine enhancement is your objective.
And keep in mind that 5-HTP should never be taken for more than a few months regardless of your reason for taking it.
Dopamine Supplements: Take the Next Step
Dopamine is an important neurotransmitter that keeps you motivated, productive, and engaged with life.
Unfortunately, too many people try to increase dopamine with addictive substances and behaviors.
Dopamine supplements provide a safe and healthy way to optimize your dopamine level and get the most out of life.
Some dopamine supplements also address particular issues such as memory loss, ADHD, depression, anxiety, or even Parkinson’s disease.
Suggested: Not sure which supplements to try first? We recommend Mind Lab Pro® — a “universal” brain supplement containing 11 brain-enhancing ingredients, including Rhodiola rosea, bacopa, citicoline, phosphatidylserine, and l-theanine, that work together to balance dopamine and other neurotransmitter levels.
READ NEXT: How to Increase Dopamine Naturally