The Effects of Caffeine on Depression

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Last updated April 17, 2023.
Edited and medically reviewed by Patrick Alban, DC. Written by Deane Alban.

Scientific evidence supports that caffeine can benefit depression, but it’s not right for everyone and all situations. Learn if caffeine can help you.

Caffeine is the most widely consumed mood-altering substance.

It’s found in the world’s most popular beverages, including tea, coffee, energy drinks, and many sodas.

Caffeine is not only universally available, society actively encourages its consumption.

In most American cities and towns, it would be hard to find an intersection that does not have at least one coffee shop.

Caffeine is so ubiquitous that it’s easy to forget that it’s a psychoactive drug.

By definition, this means that caffeine alters brain function, mood, and behavior.

What does this mean for people who drink caffeine and live with depression?

Evidence That Caffeine Reduces the Risk of Depression

There’s a substantial body of scientific evidence that caffeine is beneficial for reducing the risk of depression.

These studies include hundreds of thousands of participants of all age groups in countries around the world.

A major review of studies that included over 346,000 participants examined the link between caffeine and depression

Researchers concluded that caffeine, particularly in coffee, was protective against depression and that coffee worked better than tea, probably due to tea’s lower caffeine content.

" Caffeine should not be mixed with over 50 kinds of medications, including the most popular antidepressants.

When researchers in China performed a meta-analysis that included over 330,000 study participants, they also concluded that coffee and caffeine consumption were significantly associated with a decreased risk of depression

A large study of over 50,000 women found that those who consumed at least 2 to 4 cups of coffee per day were less likely to develop depression, compared to those who drank only one cup per week. 

This study also concluded that drinking decaffeinated coffee did not lower the risk of depression.

Another study that followed 80,000 women for 10 years found that drinking coffee lowered their risk of suicide


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A Korean study of over 10,000 people of all age groups linked coffee consumption with reduced risk of depression

A small Finnish study on middle-aged men with depression found that drinking coffee reduced the risk of depression and that the more coffee they consumed, the lower their risk of depression. 

Note that, since 80% of caffeine consumption is in the form of coffee, most studies used coffee as a source of caffeine. 

One Japanese study found the risk of depression to be inversely proportional to either green tea or coffee consumption. 

How Caffeine Alleviates Depression Symptoms

You’ll notice that all of the studies above involved lowering the risk of depression and did not address alleviating symptoms of depression.

So, you may be eager to know whether caffeine can help your mood right now.

Caffeine is a fascinating molecule that exerts a surprising number of influences on brain health and function.

No one, including the experts, knows for sure what causes depression.

The prevailing theories are that depression is caused by: 

  • neurotransmitter imbalance
  • brain inflammation
  • underlying health conditions
  • genetic propensity
  • emotional trauma
  • stressful life circumstances

While caffeine doesn’t address all these potential causes, there are two main ways that caffeine can help reduce depressive symptoms.

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Caffeine Increases Mood-Boosting Brain Chemicals

Caffeine readily enters the brain where it alters the activity of several neurotransmitters, including two of particular importance for depression — serotonin and dopamine

Serotonin is the neurotransmitter most closely linked to depression.

This is why selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which are thought to work by increasing brain levels of serotonin, are the most commonly prescribed antidepressants. 

But these drugs work for only 40% of those who use them, so clearly, low serotonin is not always the cause. 

Dopamine dysregulation can also be an underlying, but lesser known, cause of depression. 

Dopamine is the neurotransmitter most closely associated with motivation, focus, and productivity. 

The symptoms of dopamine-based depression differ from those of serotonin-based depression.

Dopamine-based depression expresses itself as lethargy and lack of enjoyment of life, while serotonin-based depression tends to be accompanied by anxiety.

People with depression caused by low dopamine often self-medicate with …

  • caffeine
  • sugar
  • nicotine
  • illicit drugs

… to temporarily feel more motivated and productive.

This is no coincidence — all these substances increase dopamine.

Caffeine also makes dopamine in the brain work better by helping it bind to dopamine receptors. 

Dopamine is also in charge of your “pleasure-reward system” and you can get a boost of dopamine just by the expectation of a need being met.


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This happens as you anticipate your next cup of coffee.

Amazingly, simply the expectation of your next caffeinated beverage can improve your mood, even if you don’t ingest any caffeine! 

Coffee and Caffeine Are Anti-Inflammatory

There’s a promising theory that depression is not caused by neurotransmitter imbalances, but as a result of chronic brain inflammation.

A little-known fact about the brain is that it has its own immune system.

Immune system messengers called cytokines can activate inflammation in the brain, destroying tissue and altering brain function. 

The release of pro-inflammatory cytokines can contribute to: 

  • depression
  • anxiety
  • memory loss
  • inability to focus
  • schizophrenia
  • bipolar disorder
  • increased risk of suicide

Coffee contains a slew of anti-inflammatory compounds — chlorogenic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, nicotinic acid, trigonelline, quinolinic acid, tannic acid, and pyrogallic acid — that can reduce the brain inflammation associated with depression

Who Should Not Use Caffeine for Depression

Just because many people benefit from caffeine doesn’t mean that it’s right for everyone.

There are a few demographic groups that should not use caffeine as a way to self-medicate their depression.

1. Don’t Use Caffeine If You Have Anxiety or Psychiatric Disorder

Caffeine use has been linked to mental disorders of all kinds, including:

  • anxiety
  • panic
  • depression
  • insomnia
  • eating disorders

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It’s fairly common for people with psychiatric disorders such as bipolar disorder or schizophrenia to self-medicate with caffeine, often consuming large amounts. 

It’s suspected that they do this to reduce their medication’s side effects, specifically to improve their cognitive function and boost their ability to feel pleasure.

It’s been recognized since the late 1980s that caffeine may be counterproductive in these cases.

Taking schizophrenia patients off caffeine has been found to improve many of their symptoms. 

Depression and anxiety commonly occur together and there’s no doubt that caffeine exacerbates anxiety.

Caffeine consumption delivers a double whammy when you are under stress.

It causes stress hormones to skyrocket, while it simultaneously inhibits GABA, the neurotransmitter of relaxation. 

If you have both depression and anxiety, as many people do, the benefits of caffeine for depression almost certainly do not outweigh the cost of increased anxiety.

2. Minimize Caffeine Intake If You Have Insomnia

Caffeine achieves many of its effects by blocking the activity of adenosine, a neurotransmitter that makes you tired and sleepy.

If you already have trouble sleeping, caffeine can make your insomnia worse which, in turn, can fuel your depression.

Caffeine-induced sleep disorder is so problematic that it’s a recognized psychiatric disorder. 

If you have problems sleeping and you still want to drink caffeinated drinks, drink them early in the day, at least six hours before bedtime

It can take as little as two, or as many as ten, hours after caffeine ingestion to metabolize half of it

You may find it worthwhile to figure out your ideal cut-off time, then stick with it.

Personally, I can’t consume caffeine after 2 pm and still expect to get a good night’s sleep.

3. Caffeine and Prescription Antidepressants: A Dangerous Combination

Caffeine should not be mixed with over 50 kinds of medications, including the most popular antidepressants. 

Caffeine can greatly amplify the effects of: 

  • tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)
  • selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
  • selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRI)

Some SSRIs can significantly slow the breakdown of caffeine, increasing caffeine’s half-life tenfold from 5 to 56 hours, resulting in restlessness and anxiety. 

And when excessive amounts of caffeine are consumed, the combination of caffeine and SSRIs can cause seizures and serotonin syndrome, a potentially serious condition. 

A fourth kind of antidepressant, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, can boost the effects of caffeine and cause acute high blood pressure.

In her book Drug Muggerpharmacist Suzy Cohen, RPh, reveals that the combination of caffeine and prescription antidepressants can trigger tremors and panic attacks.

Caffeine also affects other psychiatric medicines, including antipsychotic medications and lithium. 

4. Women Who Should Not Use Caffeine for Depression

There are several reasons that women, in particular, should be mindful of their caffeine intake.

Caffeine can exacerbate the symptoms of: 

Being pregnant or taking birth control pills doubles the usual half-life of caffeine, giving twice the jolt from any caffeine consumed. 

Besides, caffeine is not good for an unborn child since it restricts growth, resulting in lower birth weights. 

5. Kids and Teens Should Not Use Caffeine for Depression

There’s some evidence that caffeine contributes to depression, particularly in young consumers.

One study on middle school students linked caffeine use to:

  • increased risk of depression
  • lower academic achievement
  • more stress and insomnia

The more caffeine students drank, the worse the severity of their depression. 

Another study on the effects of caffeine in adolescents concurred that it increased the risk of depression. 

Caffeine Withdrawal Fuels Depression

As an addictive substance, caffeine not only impacts mood when used, but also when stopping it. 

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), widely considered psychiatry’s “bible,” considers caffeine withdrawal a recognized mental disorder.

Researchers have been able to detect measurable changes in the brain that occur when caffeine consumers go through withdrawal.

Using EEGs, they found that caffeine abstinence alters brainwave activity and increases blood flow to the brain. 

While increased blood flow to the brain is generally a good thing, this change induces caffeine withdrawal’s most common symptom, headaches.

In fact, 50% of those who cut back on caffeine experience headaches

Researchers have found clusters of other common caffeine withdrawal symptoms.

They have identified the most common symptoms of caffeine withdrawal: 

  • depressed mood
  • lack of focus
  • fatigue
  • brain fog
  • low motivation
  • irritability
  • flu-like symptoms (nausea, vomiting, and muscle pain)

The good news is that these symptoms are short-lived and usually reach their peak within 2 to 9 days. 

However, be forewarned that if you are seriously addicted to caffeine, it can take months to feel completely normal again.

During this adjustment period, it’s not uncommon to feel more tired and mentally foggy than usual.

Caffeine Dosage for Depression

Let’s look at what research has found about the ideal caffeine dosage for depression.

To Lower Your Risk of Depression

If your goal is to lower your risk of depression, the Nurses’ Health Study, which followed over 50,000 women for 10 years, can provide some guidelines. 

Drinking 2 to 3 cups per day reduced the risk of depression by 15% over the course of the study. 

Drinking 4 cups of more lowered the risk by 20%.

To Improve Your Mood

But if your goal is to use caffeine to improve your mood right now, the answer is not at all clear-cut.

There are many variables that impact how efficiently the body metabolizes caffeine: 

  • general health
  • weight
  • foods eaten

So, you will have to determine your ideal caffeine dosage by trial and error.

If you currently don’t use caffeine, start with a low dose and gradually work your way up to larger amounts.

Notice how you respond.

The US Food and Drug Administration has set the upper safe limit of caffeine intake at 400 mg per day. 

At higher doses, caffeine becomes counterproductive by increasing anxiety and insomnia.

This is not a good trade-off, especially for people who have both depression and anxiety — a common occurrence. 

This chart provides a general idea of the amount of caffeine in popular caffeinated beverages.

chart showing caffeine content of different drinks
The amount of caffeine in popular caffeinated beverages. (Image courtesy of Funders and Founders)

The Best and Worst Sources of Caffeine to Treat Depression

While coffee is by far the most common source of caffeine in most Western countries, it’s not necessarily the best source for treating depression.

A better source may be green tea.

Green tea’s impressive antidepressant effects are thought to be due to its numerous healthy compounds, including: 

  • the B vitamin folate, a known mood booster
  • polyphenols, neuroprotective antioxidants with known antidepressant properties
  • l-theanine, a compound unique to all true teas (Camellia sinensis), increases the feel-good neurotransmitters and induces a state of “attentive relaxation”

The worst sources of caffeine are those that also contain sugar, such as:

  • soda
  • energy drinks
  • highly sweetened coffee drinks

Caffeine and sugar compound each other’s negative effects and may be worse for mood than either alone. 

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