By improving the quality of your thoughts and your decisions, better critical thinking skills can bring about a big positive change in your life. Learn how.
It’s not an exaggeration to say that the quality of your life largely depends on the quality of the decisions you make.
Amazingly, the average person makes 35,000 conscious decisions every day! (1)
Imagine how much better things could be if there was a tool that ensured you were making the best possible decisions, day in and day out?
Well, there is and it’s called critical thinking.
Learning to master the skills of critical thinking can have a profound impact on nearly every aspect of your life.
Definitions of Critical Thinking
The first documented account of critical thinking is the teachings of Socrates as recorded by Plato. (2)
Over time, the definition of critical thinking has evolved.
Most definitions of critical thinking are fairly complex and best understood by philosophy majors or psychologists.
The Foundation for Critical Thinking offers this definition:
“Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and/or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action.”
If that leaves you scratching your head, here are some definitions that you may relate to more easily.
Critical thinking is “reasonable, reflective thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do.” (3)
Or, a catchy way of defining critical thinking is “deciding what’s true and what you should do.”
But my favorite uber-simple definition is that critical thinking is simply “thinking about thinking.”
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6 Major Benefits of Developing Critical Thinking
Whether or not you think critically can make the difference between success and failure in just about every area of your life.
Our human brains are imperfect and prone to irrationality, distortions, prejudices, and cognitive biases.
Cognitive biases are systematic patterns of irrational thinking.
While the number of cognitive biases varies, Wikipedia, for example, lists well over 150 of them! (4)
Some of the most well-known biases include catastrophic thinking, confirmation bias, and the fear of missing out (FOMO).
Critical thinking will help you move past the limitations of irrational thinking.
Here are some of the most important benefits of critical thinking for your life.
1. Critical Thinking Is a Key to Career Success
There are many professions where critical thinking is an absolute must.
Lawyers, analysts, accountants, doctors, engineers, reporters, and scientists of all kinds must apply critical thinking frequently.
But critical thinking is a skill set that is becoming increasingly valuable in a growing number of professions.
Critical thinking can help you in any profession where you must analyze information, systematically solve problems, generate innovative solutions, plan strategically, think creatively, or present your work or ideas to others in a way that can be readily understood.
And, as we enter the fourth industrial revolution, critical thinking has become one of the most sought-after skills.
According to the World Economic Forum, critical thinking and complex problem solving are the two top in-demand skills that employers are looking for. (5)
Critical thinking is considered a soft or enterprise skill — a core attribute that is required to succeed in the workplace. (6)
Other soft skills include problem solving, creativity, communication and presentation skills, and digital literacy.
Critical thinking can help you develop the rest of these soft skills as well.
Developing your critical thinking can help you land a job since many employers will ask you interview questions or even give you a test to determine how well you can think critically.
It can also help you continually succeed in your career, since being a critical thinker is a powerful predictor of long-term success.
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2. Critical Thinkers Make Better Decisions
Every day you make thousands of decisions.
Most of them are made by your subconscious and a few, like which shoes to wear today, don’t require much thought. (7)
But the most important decisions you make can be hard and require a lot of thought, such as when or if you should change jobs, relocate to a new city, buy a house, get married, or have kids.
At work, you may have to make decisions that can alter the course of your career or the lives of others.
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Critical thinking helps you cope with everyday problems as they arise.
It promotes independent thinking and strengthens your inner “BS detector.”
It helps you make sense of the glut of data and information available, making you a smarter consumer who is less likely to fall for advertising, peer pressure, or scams.
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3. Critical Thinking Can Make You Happier
Knowing and understanding yourself is an underappreciated path to happiness. (8)
We’ve already seen how your quality of life largely depends on the quality of your decisions, but equally as important is the quality of your thoughts.
Critical thinking is an excellent tool to help you better understand yourself and to learn to master your thoughts.
You can use critical thinking to free yourself from cognitive biases, negative thinking, and limiting beliefs that are holding you back in any area of your life.
Critical thinking can help you assess your strengths and weaknesses so that you know what you have to offer and where you could use improvement.
Critical thinking will enable you to better express your thoughts, ideas, and beliefs.
Better communication results in less frustration and being more readily understood by others.
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It fosters creativity and out-of-the-box thinking which can be applied to any area of your life.
Critical thinking gives you a process you can rely on, making decisions less stressful.
It can boost your confidence since you and those around you trust that your opinions are well thought-out.
4. Critical Thinking Ensures Your Opinions Are Well-Informed
We have access to more information than ever before.
Astoundingly, more data has been created in the past two years than in the entire previous history of mankind. (9)
Critical thinking can help you sort through the noise.
American politician, sociologist, and diplomat Daniel Patrick Moynihan once remarked that “You are entitled to your opinion. But you are not entitled to your own facts.”
Critical thinking ensures your opinions are well-informed and based on the best available facts.
5. Critical Thinking Improves Relationships
You might be concerned that critical thinking will turn you into a Spock-like character who is not very good at relationships.
But, in fact, the opposite is true.
Employing critical thinking makes you more open-minded and better able to understand others’ points of view.
Critical thinkers are more empathetic and in a good position to get along with different kinds of people.
Critical thinking keeps you from jumping to conclusions.
You can be counted on to be the voice of reason when arguments get heated.
You’ll also be better able to detect when others are being disingenuous, don’t have your best interests at heart, or are trying to take advantage of or manipulate you.
6. Critical Thinking Makes You a Better, More Informed Citizen
“An educated citizenry is a vital requisite for our survival as a free people.”
This quote has been incorrectly attributed to Thomas Jefferson, but regardless of the source, its words of wisdom are more relevant than ever. (10)
Critical thinkers are able to see both sides of any issue and are more likely to uncover bipartisan solutions.
They are less likely to be swayed by propaganda or get swept up by mass hysteria.
They are in a better position to spot fake news when they see it.
5 Steps to Improve Your Critical Thinking Skills
Some people already have well-developed critical thinking skills.
These people are analytical, inquisitive, and open to new ideas.
They are able to connect the dots between ideas and detect inconsistencies in others’ thinking.
But regardless of the state of your critical thinking skills today, it’s a skill set you can develop.
While there are many techniques for thinking rationally, here’s a classic 5-step critical thinking process. (13)
How to Improve Your Critical Thinking Skills
Clearly define your question or problem
This step is so important that Albert Einstein famously quipped, “If I had an hour to solve a problem, I’d spend 55 minutes thinking about the problem and 5 minutes thinking about solutions.”
Gather information to help you weigh the options
Consider only the most useful and reliable information from the most reputable sources.
Disregard the rest.
Apply the information and ask critical questions
Scrutinize all information carefully with a skeptic’s eye.
Not sure what questions to ask?
You can’t go wrong starting with the “5 Ws” that any good investigator asks: Who. What. Where. When. Why.
You’ll find more thought-provoking questions on this Critical Thinking Skills Cheatsheet.
Consider the implications
Look for potential unintended consequences in both the short and long term.
Explore the full spectrum of viewpoints
Examine why others are drawn to differing points of view.
This will help you objectively evaluate your own viewpoint.
You may find critical thinkers who take an opposing view and this can help you find gaps in your own logic.
This TED Ed video elaborates on the 5 steps to improve your critical thinking.
Why Critical Thinking Is Important: Take the Next Step
Critical thinking is one of the most important cognitive skills that you can develop.
By improving the quality of both your decisions and your thoughts, critical thinking can make a positive difference in your life, both personally and professionally.
Too many people criticize without thinking or think without being critical.
You don’t have to be one of them.
Follow the five steps above to develop your critical thinking “muscle.”
Critical thinking has the power to not only change your life, but also to make the world a more rational, reasonable place.