Service dogs are specially trained to assist people with mental health conditions such as anxiety, depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder.
Anxiety and depression have reached near epidemic proportions.
In the United States alone, 18% of people age 18 and over, about 40 million adults, experience some form of anxiety disorder.
Depression affects 16 million adults, with half of those also having some form of anxiety disorder.
It’s been proven that dogs add to your overall happiness and positively affect your life, but this is especially true for those suffering from anxiety or depression. (1)
Some of the key ways dogs help are by increasing oxytocin (the “love” hormone), decreasing the stress hormone cortisol, and by providing opportunities for exercise and socialization. (2)
The mental health benefits of having a pet dog are pretty impressive, but service dogs are trained to do even more for you.
Types of Service Dogs for Anxiety and Depression
Terms like service dog and therapy dog are often used interchangeably, but they are not the same thing.
Here is a look at various options to consider when looking for canine help for your anxiety or depression.
Service dogs must be certified by the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) so that they’re allowed everywhere you go, like into restaurants or retail stores.
Service dogs are able to live with you in any residence, even those that typically don’t allow dogs.
They’re trained to support one specific person.
Service dogs are not required to wear a vest (although oftentimes they do) and you aren’t required to show proof of training.
The most common types of service dogs provide support to those with problems with motor skills and those who are hearing or seeing-impaired.
But these dogs can also assist people who have a mental health condition such as anxiety, depression, or post-traumatic stress disorder.
Psychiatric Service Dogs
Psychiatric service dogs are a type of service dog that’s also certified by the ADA.
They are trained to help people with anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and post-traumatic stress disorder. (3)
Psychiatric support dogs assist somebody with mental health conditions that stop them from performing tasks.
Some tasks they help with are bringing medicine during an anxiety attack, leading somebody to help you, licking your face, and putting pressure against you to calm you down.
These dogs are able to sense changes in your body when you are about to have a panic attack.
The dog will paw at your leg and interrupt what would be destructive behavior so that you will refocus on him.
If somebody suffers from claustrophobia, the dog can be trained to stand in between you and others so that you gain more control of your personal space.
For the above reasons, many organizations try to place psychiatric support dogs with returning veterans who suffer from PTSD. (4)
Learn more —
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Emotional Support Dogs
An emotional support dog is not trained to physically help with its day-to-day actions, but instead calms its owner just by its presence.
Unlike service dogs, emotional support dogs don’t require a specific type of training or certificate.
Emotional support dogs are mostly regarded as pets, meaning they aren’t allowed everywhere that service dogs are.
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However, if you have an emotional support dog, you still qualify to liven in no-pet housing and can bring them with you on a commercial flight without an extra fee.
Emotional support dogs are used for disabilities such as anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, phobias, and panic attacks.
An emotional support dog can also be of great benefit for both children and adults on the autism spectrum.
To obtain an emotional support dog, you’re required to present a letter from your doctor or another medical professional.
This doctor has to specialize in mental health, so a letter from any other type of doctor does not qualify.
The term therapy dog is often used generically to describe all kinds of service dogs, but, in fact, they have a very distinct role.
Therapy dogs go with their owners to volunteer in settings such as schools, hospitals, and nursing homes.
These dogs need to have a calm demeanor and get along with all people, but they are not considered service dogs and do not have the same rights and privileges.
Therapy dogs can bring great comfort to those with anxiety, depression, or PTSD.
They can help ease the loneliness experienced by seniors.
One study found that Alzheimer’s patients who spent time with therapy dogs improved their quality of life and increased the amount of time they spent recounting memories. (5)
This chart sums up the similarities and differences between the three main types of assistance animals.
How Service Dogs Help Anxiety and Depression
Symptoms of depression can include disinterest in daily life and favorite activities, periods of self-isolation, and trouble getting out of bed and caring for yourself.
Some symptoms of anxiety can include difficulty working from outside the house, reduced social contact due to being overwhelmed, anxiety attacks, and issues with fear.
The presence of a service dog can help on all fronts.
Here are some of the many ways service dogs work their magic!
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Dogs Assure You’ll Get Exercise
Dogs need exercise, and you’ll be getting a lot of exercise right along with them!
Dog owners on average walk 30 minutes per day and are more active overall than those without dogs. (6)
Some of the ways exercise improves mental health is by increasing circulation to the brain and raising levels of feel-good brain chemicals including endorphins, norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. (12)
Walking your dog assures that you’ll get outside, and simply spending time in nature can boost your mood and calm your anxiety.
And while you’re outside in sunny weather, you have the opportunity to create vitamin D, an essential nutrient with many antidepressant properties.
Learn more —
Proven Mental Health Benefits of Exercise
Dogs Ward Off Loneliness
An affectionate dog provides unconditional love and friendship.
Walking your dog can help you feel less isolated because you’ll meet other people on your walks.
Don’t be surprised if people stop to admire your dog or ask you questions about her.
Interestingly, a dog can provide the same emotional benefits as having friends of the human variety. (13)
Your relationship with your dog can also improve your existing relationships with other people.
Dogs Give You a Sense of Purpose
If you are feeling down, having a dog gives you a sense of purpose, a reason to get up and face the day.
They also provide you with much-needed structure.
Dogs need to be regularly fed and walked and are very good at reminding you if you are falling behind schedule.
Even though dogs are a lot of work, having responsibility for them promotes mental health by building self-esteem.
When you learn that you’re capable of taking care of another creature, you start to realize that you are capable of taking care of yourself.
Caring for someone or something else helps you to not focus on yourself as much which can alleviate symptoms of anxiety and depression.
Dogs Reduce Stress
Dogs create a sense of calm and confidence and, amazingly, can even warn you of an oncoming anxiety attack.
A review of 69 studies found that regular interaction with animals reduces many stress-related parameters. (16)
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Spending time with your dog increases oxytocin levels in both you and your pet. (17)
One study found that a having a dog can reduce stress even better than a close friend. (18)
Stress has often been described as “time traveling” — worrying about the future and ruminating about the past.
But your dog can work like meditation by keeping you fully in the present moment.
Learn more —
Meditation for Anxiety: Proven Way to Calm Your Mind
How to Get a Service Dog for Anxiety or Depression (or train your own)
If you believe that a service dog could benefit you, there are a few things you must know.
Not everyone qualifies for a service dog and, even if you do, it can be quite expensive and is not covered by insurance or Medicaid.
Service dogs are a big responsibility in both time and money.
And, it’s important to note that at the end of the day, a dog is still a dog, so you have to go through training to learn how to successfully work with them.
The dog has to learn your commands and you have to practice with it every day.
A great resource is Rover.com’s Ultimate Guide to Getting a Service Dog where you’ll find lists of organizations that can help guide you through the process.
If you would like to train your pet dog to become your service dog, you can learn what is required in Rover.com’s Step-by-Step Guide to Becoming a Service Dog.
Lastly, not everyone with anxiety or depression needs a certified service dog.
You may already have a beloved pet that brings you a lot of comfort or you may want to consider getting a pet dog if you don’t already have one.
You can also train your pet dog to be an emotional support dog which does not have to be as highly trained as a service dog.
While any breed can be an emotional support dog, some breeds are easier to work with than others.
Golden retrievers, labs, and labradoodles (or other types of doodles) are good choices due to their intelligence and calmness.
Service Dogs for Anxiety and Depression: The Bottom Line
Both pet dogs and service dogs provide an abundance of emotional benefits.
Service dogs are trained to help their humans with their specific needs.
Service dogs can ease symptoms of depression and anxiety through exercise and routine, and provide calmness and comfort.
They learn to be attuned to your needs and provide friendship and unconditional love.
Even for those who don’t require a service animal, a family pet is still a wonderful addition to the family that will bring happiness to your everyday life.
About the author
This article was contributed by Greer Grenley, a Rover.com community member. Rover.com is the nation’s largest online network of 5-star pet sitters and dog walkers. It is available via web, as well as Android and iOS app.