Learning a second language offers proven benefits for intelligence, memory, and concentration and lowered risks of dementia and Alzheimer’s.
Understanding language is one of the hardest things your brain does.
The benefits of learning a second language seem, in fact, to be proportional to the effort expended by the brain.
Because language is complex, speaking or learning a foreign language gives your brain a good workout.
It’s good brain exercise that makes the brain stronger.
It’s hard to believe now, but there was a time when raising children in a bilingual home was believed to stunt their intellectual growth. (1)
Experts thought their brains would become confused and that it might even contribute to schizophrenia or split identities.
But times have changed.
We now understand that precisely the opposite is true.
It’s now known that learning another language is one of the most effective and practical ways to increase intelligence, keep your mind sharp, and buffer your brain against aging.
Here are the ways that speaking or learning a second language can benefit your brain, no matter your age.
Being Bilingual Improves Cognitive Skills and Overall Brain Function
A lot of research has been done on the effects of learning and speaking languages.
People who speak two or more languages have significantly better overall cognitive abilities than those who speak one. (2)
Compared to people that speak one language, adults who speak multiple languages are more likely to:
- have higher general intelligence (3)
- be better at planning, prioritizing, and decision making (4)
- score higher on standardized math, reading, and vocabulary tests (5)
- be more perceptive of their surroundings
- avoid falling for marketing hype
- understand others’ points of view (6)
- have better focus, concentration, and attention (7)
- delay immediate gratification in the pursuit of long-term goals (8)
- have better memory and memorization skills, including better working memory (9)
- exhibit mental flexibility (10)
- switch between tasks quickly
- be creative (11)
- have good listening skills (12)
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Learning a New Language Increases Brain Size and Connectivity
In one Swedish study, young military recruits were taught new languages.
By measuring their brains before and after the language training, researchers had a unique opportunity to observe what happens to the brain when learning a second language.
MRI brain scans showed that study participants increased the size of their hippocampus. (14)
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Studying a new language can also increase the number of neural pathways between parts of the brain.
In another study, English speakers’ brains were monitored as learned the Chinese vocabulary.
MRIs revealed that they developed better connectivity between different regions of their brains. (15)
Besides changes in brain function, there were also detectable changes in brain structure after six weeks.
This structural change was apparent even in the elderly, leading researchers to conclude that brain plasticity — the brain’s ability to constantly change and grow — is greater than previously realized.
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Knowing More Than One Language Protects Your Brain Against Aging
Knowing a second language can postpone the onset of dementia and Alzheimer’s by 4.5 years. (16)
This is significantly better than the best Alzheimer’s drugs which can delay symptoms by only 6-12 months. (17)
Brains scans found a noticeable difference in brain activity of bilingual seniors.
Their brains worked much more efficiently, more like those of young adults. (18)
Scientists believe these seniors’ brains have more reserve brain power that helps compensate for age-related memory loss.
Interestingly, there is no correlation between the benefits of speaking two languages and literacy.
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There’s always been a question whether bilinguals stay mentally sharp due to overall better education, but this doesn’t seem to be the case.
Bilinguals who cannot read and write experience the same protective benefits against dementia as literate bilinguals. (19)
If knowing two languages is good for your brain, is knowing three or more even better?
It looks like that’s the case.
There is evidence that being multilingual offers even further protective benefits for the brain. (20)
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Bilingualism and Young Brains
It was once believed that children raised in bilingual households performed worse academically.
It was thought that hearing two languages would confuse them and result in developmental delays.
While some studies suggest learning two languages simultaneously can lead to delays in language milestones, these delays are temporary.
These children catch up by the time they are three years old. (21)
Children who are multilingual experience brain benefits early on.
Numerous studies support that children who study a foreign language receive a boost in overall cognitive development, do better on standardized tests, are more creative, and have better self-esteem and sense of achievement in school. (22)
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Learn a Second Language — Three Words at a Time
If you don’t already know a second language, it’s never too late to learn.
Whether you learn a new language as a child or later in adulthood doesn’t seem to matter when it comes to staying mentally sharp for life. (23)
Using an additional language you already know boosts your brain power, and so does the process of learning a new language.
You may feel that learning a language now is going to be too hard, or hardly worth the effort.
But you don’t have to be fluent to experience brain benefits or be culturally enriched.
Even minimal knowledge of a second language can help. (24)
Just look at what you could accomplish with minimal effort if you decided to learn just three words per day.
Besides giving your brain a small workout you’ll be building your new vocabulary.
It’s been said that the 100 most commonly used words of any language comprise 50% of the words used in day-to-day conversation.
And that 100 core words is what you need to be minimally functional when it comes to conversing with others that speak that language.
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Google “learn 100 core words” and you’ll find a series of free online lessons that teach 100 core words in numerous languages.
At three words per day, you can accomplish that in three months.
Then why not keep the momentum going?
The top 1,000 words comprise 89% of everyday writing in that language. (25)
At three words per day, you can become reasonably proficient in reading in less than a year.
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Benefits of Learning a Second Language: The Bottom Line
Your brain thrives on getting out of your routine and learning things that are new and complex.
Learning a new language definitely fits this criteria.
Millions of people engage in activities like online brain training to keep mentally sharp.
But learning a second language is a much more practical and rewarding use of your time.
Learning a new language can broaden your horizons in many ways.
Having another language under your belt is a great career move.
It will make you more employable and increase your bottom line.
It enhances cultural experiences when you travel.
You’ll feel more confident.
You’ll meet more people and have more fun.
It opens up a whole world of options regarding where you can comfortably work, live, or retire.
Plus, it will keep your brain fit and healthy assuring that you can enjoy it all.