Use our extensive brain foods guide to power up your diet and get sharp, positive, and productive today. The evidence-backed, practical info you need is here.
Every bite of food you eat is a choice that either depletes or nourishes your brain.
The wrong foods — like sugar and trans fats — can leave you feeling mentally foggy, anxious, and depressed, while the right foods can help make you mentally sharp, positive, and productive.
Certain foods are particularly high in the nutrients needed to create, protect, and repair brain cells.
They also supply the building blocks of neurotransmitters — brain chemicals that
control how well you learn and remember, how happy and motivated you are, and how well you can relax and enjoy life.
Foods that are rich in essential brain nutrients will protect you against a variety of mental disorders now and degenerative brain diseases in years to come.
We call these brain foods.
In this guide, we’ll look at the best of the best — the top brain foods — and the remarkable things they can do for your brain and mental well-being.
Some of these foods are known for their long-standing healthy reputation (and we’ll tell you exactly why), while others are only recently being recognized as the powerhouses they are.
We’ve also included shopping, storing and preparation tips so you’ll reap maximum brain nutrition from every bite you take and every dollar you spend.
Get started here.
#1. Fatty Fish: For Brain-Essential Omega-3s
Fish deservedly has a reputation as a top-notch brain food.
It’s an outstanding source of protein which is needed to form mood-boosting neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine.
It’s also a great source of vitamin B12, an essential vitamin for a healthy brain and nervous system.
But where fish really shines is as a major dietary source of omega-3 essential fatty acids (EFAs), quite possibly the most important group of nutrients for your brain.
Unfortunately, typical modern diets are short on omega-3s. It’s estimated that 70% of us do not get enough of them. (1)
Omega-3 EFAs are a key structural component of brain cell membranes and nerve cells.
It’s no exaggeration to say that the quality of your brain cells depends on the availability of these healthy fats.
Omega-3s are strongly anti-inflammatory.
Eating fish is a proven mood booster.
Major fish-eating countries like Japan and Iceland (which consume 147 and 225 pounds per year respectively) have low rates of SAD in spite of their northern latitudes with long periods of darkness. (6)
If you take an antidepressant, eating fish can enhance its effectiveness. (7)
Fish is an exceptional source of one particular omega-3 critical for brain function — DHA (docosahexaenoic acid).
DHA is a major structural component of the brain and makes up 97% of all the omega-3 fats in the brain. (8)
Be aware that not all fish is abundant in omega-3s.
By far the best sources are cold water, oily fish such as herring, salmon, mackerel, and sardines. (14)
Unfortunately, typical canned tuna, the most widely consumed fish, contains a fraction of the omega-3s of the top sources. (15)
RECOMMENDED: Harvard Medical School recommends eating 12 ounces of fish per week, but sticking to those low in mercury. (16)
Tips for Buying Healthy Fish
While there are legitimate concerns about mercury and other contaminants in fish, it’s widely agreed that the benefits of moderate fish consumption outweigh the risks, especially if you’re eating wild-caught rather than farmed fish. (17)
Farmed salmon notoriously appears on the Environmental Defense Fund’s list of worst seafood choices for the environment.
It contains high concentrations of dioxins and pesticides, and, alarmingly, more PCBs (a class of industrial chemicals) than any other protein source.
When buying fish, look for those that are both high in omega-3s and low in mercury and other contaminants.
The fish that meet these criteria are on a pretty short list.
Specifically look for these fish caught in these parts of the world. (18)
- Atlantic mackerel (from US or Canada) or Atka mackerel (from Alaska) (19)
- Atlantic or Pacific herring (20)
- Pacific sardines (from US or Canada), Spanish sardines, orangespot sardines, or Japanese sardinellas (21)
- The 5 species of wild salmon (from US Pacific northwest, especially Alaska) — chinook, chum, coho, pink, and sockeye (22)
- Alaskan canned salmon — pink or sockeye
When buying salmon, skip “Atlantic” salmon which is inevitably farmed.
If you buy canned tuna, note that albacore (from the US or Canada) is the only tuna rated “high” in omega-3s.
But since it contains a “moderate” (rather than low) amount of mercury, it’s generally recommended you eat no more than 4 servings of tuna per month. (23)
✓Vital Choice Wild Seafood For omega-3 fats and other brain-healthy nutrients
#2. Eggs: For Memory and Learning
Eggs are packed with protein, vitamin B12, and can be a significant source of omega-3 fatty acids.
Eggs are high in tryptophan, an amino acid that’s a building block of the “happiness” molecule (and neurotransmitter) serotonin. (24)
Choline is a precursor of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that plays a central role in memory and learning. (27)
If you feel like you are experiencing “senior moments,” you may be deficient in acetylcholine.
Having adequate acetylcholine is critical for having a sharp memory now and for keeping your thinking quick and focused as you age as low levels have been linked to Alzheimer’s. (28)
Choline is also the precursor to another important brain nutrient, citicoline. (29)
Citicoline naturally occurs in every cell in the body but is especially prevalent in brain cells.
It increases blood flow to the brain and enhances the brain’s ability to utilize blood glucose, its main source of fuel. (30)
Unfortunately, eggs have gotten a bad rap for containing cholesterol but, in fact, your brain needs cholesterol.
As Dr. Datis Kharrazian explains in his book Why Isn’t My Brain Working?, the brain will literally start to eat itself for the raw materials it needs when there isn’t enough dietary fat!
Equally surprising is that there’s no actual evidence that eggs contribute to heart disease in healthy individuals. (33)
In fact, eggs raise good cholesterol (HDL) while turning bad (LDL) cholesterol into a harmless form. (34)
If you’ve been avoiding eggs, give yourself permission to add them back into your diet.
Even the conservative American Heart Association no longer recommends avoiding eggs.
RECOMMENDED: There is no official guideline as to how many eggs to eat, but a reasonable rule of thumb seems to be 2-6 eggs per week. However, people eat considerably more with no ill effects. (35, 36)
Tips for Buying Eggs
When shopping for eggs, you’ll see grade A, cage-free, organic, free-range, and more. How to choose?
Look for eggs from free-range hens which contain substantially more nutrients than their mass-produced counterparts. (37)
Eggs from free-range hens contain twice the omega-3 fats of those from factory-raised hens. (38)
Free-range eggs also contain one-third of the cholesterol, if this is still a concern of yours.
There’s no need to pay more for brown eggs since they contain no more nutrients than white.
Different color eggs simply come from different breeds of hens. (39)
And whatever you do, eat whole eggs not just the whites!
The yolk contains most of the nutrients your brain needs.
#3. Berries: Antioxidant Powerhouses
All fruits are loaded with vitamins, fiber, and phytonutrients, but berries are in a class of their own.
Berries of all kinds — blueberries, strawberries, raspberries and blackberries — usually make it to the top of any brain foods list.
They are bursting with flavonoids, a group of potent antioxidants that protect brain cells from oxidative damage.
One group of flavonoids in particular, the anthocyanins, gives berries their beautiful colors.
Flavonoids play a role in improvements in numerous cognitive skills including memory, learning, and decision making. (40)
These substances promote the production of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a protein that stimulates the formation of new brain cells. (41)
Low levels of BDNF are associated with several neurological and mood disorders including depression, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia.
Berries also protect the brain from chronic inflammation. (42)
Chronic inflammation shuts down energy production in brain cells leading to vague symptoms like mental fatigue and brain fog as well as recognized disorders such as ADHD, anxiety, and depression. (43)
Blueberries can forestall age-related mental decline and protect against Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases by clearing the brain of toxic proteins. (44)
Berries’ flavonoids chelate toxic metals, helping remove them from brain cells. (45)
Neuroplasticity is your brain’s ability to keep changing and potentially improving throughout your lifetime.
Lastly, berries are a source of resveratrol, a polyphenol that’s been called “the fountain of youth.”
Many people drink red wine for its resveratrol but perhaps they should also try berries which are a better source. (47)
Resveratrol has been shown to enhance brain function, memory, and brain connectivity in older adults. (48)
RECOMMENDED: Harvard Medical School recommends eating 3-4 servings of berries per week. (49)
Tips for Buying Berries
Fresh berries are not always available and can be expensive.
But you can buy frozen berries anytime. They are convenient and economical.
Counterintuitively, freezing actually improves the availability of berries’ antioxidants. (50)
Buy organic berries when possible, especially strawberries.
Strawberries contain more pesticides than any other fruit or vegetable and have the dubious honor of being #1 on the Environmental Working Group’s “Dirty Dozen” list.
#4. Avocados: Possibly the Most Perfect Food
Avocados are a creamy, nutrient-dense fruit that some brain experts believe is the world’s most perfect food. (51)
Curiously, botanists classify them as a berry — albeit a very big one! (52)
Unlike other fruits that are mainly carbohydrates, avocados are 75% of mostly monounsaturated fats, the same healthy kind found in olive oil. (53)
Avocados are an excellent source of vitamins your brain needs like C, E, K, and the B complex vitamins. (55)
They also act as a “nutrient booster” to aid the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.
Avocados are high in tyrosine — an amino acid that’s a precursor to dopamine — the brain chemical that keeps you motivated and focused. (56)
The brain normally uses glucose for energy, but it is quite happy to burn healthy fat as a “super fuel.” (59)
RECOMMENDED: While there is no recommended dietary allowance (RDA) for avocados, a typical serving size is usually considered one ounce — a mere 1/5 of an avocado. More commonly people eat 1/2 of an avocado at a time. (60)
Tips for Buying and Storing Avocados
Buying and using avocados at their peak can be tricky.
How can you tell when an avocado is underripe, too ripe or just right?
Start by looking at the color.
Once you get an avocado home, you can get tell more about its state by removing the stem.
If the spot below is green, it’s not ripe. If it’s tan, it’s perfect. If it’s brown, it’s passed its peak.
(Click the image above to access Avocado Central’s interactive guide for more tips on picking the perfect avocado.)
If you need to ripen an avocado in a hurry, place it in a brown paper bag along with an apple or banana to speed up the process.
Once you’ve cut an avocado, it will turn brown and mushy quickly.
The typical solution to keep it fresh is to coat it with lemon juice, but an even better way is to place a thin slice of onion on top.
If you’ve got a ripe avocado you won’t be using in time, remove the meat, cut into chunks, and freeze.
Defrost slightly then toss into your blender for extra-creamy and brain-healthy smoothies, desserts, or soups.
It’s not necessary to buy organic avocados since they are naturally very low in pesticides.
The Environmental Working Group rates avocado at the #1 food on the “Clean 15” list.
#5. Kale: A Nutrition Bomb
Kale is certainly enjoying its 15 minutes of fame.
It’s the star of the book 50 Shades of Kale by psychiatrist and bestselling author Dr. Drew Ramsey.
It has its own “holiday” — National Kale Day.
(October 3 in case you were wondering.)
Even if you don’t love kale, there are compelling reasons to eat it anyway.
Kale is a nutrition bomb, one of the most nutrient-dense vegetables in the world. (61)
It’s extremely high in brain-protecting antioxidants including beta carotene, flavonoids, and polyphenols.
One serving of kale contains nearly as much vitamin C as an orange. (62)
Vitamin C acts as a natural antidepressant by increasing the neurotransmitter serotonin. (63)
Kale is a first-rate source of B vitamins, especially folate which is key for brain development. (64)
There’s now exciting evidence they may help prevent Alzheimer’s.
An Oxford University study confirmed that folic acid, B6 and B12 work synergistically to reduce brain atrophy, improve brain function, and dramatically reduce brain shrinkage in the part of the brain most affected by Alzheimer’s. (68)
Forgetting words becomes a problem for many of us as we get older.
Kale is one of the best sources of vitamin K, a vitamin essential for verbal memory. (69)
Kale’s flavonoids are antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective. (70)
With 120 mg per serving, kale is one of the best plant sources of omega-3s. (71)
The omega fatty acids in kale occur in the near-perfect ratio of omega-3s to omega-6s. (72)
Lastly, kale is a good source of magnesium, a mineral that most people don’t get enough of.
Magnesium may be protective against type 2 diabetes and heart disease, two diseases that take a toll on brain function. (74)
RECOMMENDED: A standard serving size of kale is 1 cup. (75)
Tips for Eating More Greens
Kale is a versatile food that’s not just for salads, smoothies, or side dishes.
There are creative ways to include it in any meal and even add it to desserts!
Kale gets more exposure than some of the other green leafy vegetables, but there is no reason to eat kale exclusively.
Other green leafy vegetables like collards, spinach, chard, turnip greens, and bok choy are all superior brain foods in their own right.
And since kale is very closely related to broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage and Brussels sprouts, they qualify as “honorable mention” kale substitutes too.
#6. Sea Vegetables: The Neglected Superfoods
Sea vegetables are some of the most nutrient-dense foods on the planet but, at least here in the West, are a largely neglected group of superfoods for the brain.
The people of Okinawa, Japan may owe their extreme health and longevity, at least in part, to their regular consumption of sea vegetables. (76)
Sea vegetables contain all 56 minerals essential for human health in a readily bioavailable form. (77)
They are the only reliable vegetable source of vitamin B12 which is essential for brain and nerve health. (78)
They are one of the few dietary sources of iodine, a mineral so rare in the diet that it’s added to table salt to prevent widespread deficiency. (79)
When iodine was added to table salt in the US in the 1920s, there was a noticeable increase in average IQ. (80)
Low iodine can be an underling cause of hypothyroidism, a condition that can manifest as brain fog, poor memory, depression, and fatigue. (81)
Nori, the seaweed sheets used to wrap sushi, is a nutritional powerhouse high in choline, inositol, B vitamins, minerals, and taurine. (83)
Taurine is an amino acid that stimulates the release of the neurotransmitter GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid).
GABA is so important for enabling you to feel relaxed and happy, it’s sometimes called “nature’s Valium.” (84)
When GABA is low, you can’t help but feel stressed out and overwhelmed.
Inositol, formerly known as vitamin B8, is found in high concentrations in the brain where it facilitates communication between brain cells.
All major neurotransmitters rely on inositol to relay messages. (85)
Just as you can’t talk on your mobile phone when there’s no signal, neurotransmitters can’t do their jobs when there’s no inositol.
RECOMMENDED: A typical serving of sea vegetables is 1/3 cup of whole leaf, 1 teaspoon of flakes, or 1/2 teaspoon of powdered vegetables. (86)
Tips for Eating Sea Vegetables
Browse through any Asian grocery store or health food store and you’ll find a wide variety of dried sea vegetables.
The biggest objection to eating seaweed is the fear that it will taste fishy or be slimy. And some do live up to that expectation.
Here are some ways to make sure your first impression of edible seaweed is a good one.
Powdered dulse or kelp can be mixed with food or sprinkled as a condiment instead of salt.
Agar-agar is a clear, tasteless thickener that can be used like gelatin to make desserts.
A mild tasting seaweed is arame. Simply soak it and add to soup or salads.
If you’ve eaten sushi, you’re already familiar with nori.
You can find ready-to-eat toasted nori sheets, both plain and flavored.
#7. Dark Chocolate: For Happiness
After kale and sea vegetables, you’re probably relieved to see a food you actually love on our brain food list!
Chocolate is one of the world’s favorite foods and is the #1 food that people crave. (87)
There are over 300 known chemical compounds in chocolate. (88)
Here are the main ones responsible for making you feel wonderful when you indulge in chocolate.
Chocolate is a great source of tryptophan, the amino acid precursor of serotonin.
It’s also an appreciable source of the anti-stress mineral magnesium.
Chocolate is one of the few dietary sources of anandamide, a naturally occurring neurotransmitter called the “bliss molecule.” (89)
Anandamide binds to the same receptors as THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), the primary psychoactive component in marijuana.
Dark chocolate also contains phenylethylamine, a psychoactive compound dubbed the “love drug.”
It purportedly gives you a buzz similar to being in love. (90)
There is a little caffeine in chocolate — enough to boost memory, mood, and concentration — but not enough to make most people feel wired. (92)
Chocolate doesn’t just make you feel happier, it positively impacts brain health and function too.
It’s high in neuroprotective flavonoids which promote brain plasticity and help brain cells live longer. (93)
Chocolate’s flavonoids stimulate blood flow to the brain to aid memory, attention span, reaction time, and problem solving. (94)
As you get older, the reasons to eat chocolate just keep getting better.
Chocolate can help seniors with short-term memory loss and prevent mental decline. (95)
The more chocolate seniors eat, the lower their risk of dementia. (96)
RECOMMENDED: According to the renowned Cleveland Clinic, most chocolate studies use a serving size between 1.5 and 3 ounces of dark chocolate per day. (97)
Tips for Buying Dark Chocolate
Look for dark chocolate that says 70% or higher on the label.
This is the total percentage of everything derived from the cocoa bean — chocolate liquor, cocoa butter and cocoa powder — in the chocolate bar.
If you find 70% too bitter, start with 54% and work your way up.
The higher this number, the more health and brain benefits your chocolate will provide.
Dark chocolate is extremely satisfying so you should find you’ll be happy eating a little.
Eating dark chocolate has been shown to reduce cravings in general, whereas typical mass-produced milk chocolate fuels cravings for junk food of all kinds. (98)
Obviously, candy bars don’t grow on trees so even the best dark chocolate has gone through numerous processing steps, including the addition of sweeteners.
Give cocoa powder or cacao nibs a try instead.
Both are significantly less processed than chocolate and contain no added sugar.
Cocoa powder has more antioxidants than other “superfoods” such as acai, blueberry, and pomegranate powders. (99)
And cacao nibs, the raw material of chocolate and cocoa powder, taste naturally nutty and are not at all bitter.
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#8. Walnuts: The #1 Nut for the Brain
All nuts are brimming with protein, vitamins, and minerals.
People who eat nuts live longer, healthier lives than those who don’t. (100)
While every nut offers brain benefits, walnuts are the undisputed champion.
They are the best among the few foods that contain mood-elevating serotonin. (103)
Walnuts have the potential to reverse several parameters of brain aging. (106)
Walnut extract inhibits the buildup of toxic beta-amyloid proteins found in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients. (107)
One study on adults of all ages found that eating walnuts improved reaction time, learning, and memory recall. (108)
RECOMMENDED: Approximately 1 tablespoon of walnuts a day is recommended for improving cognitive health.
Tips for Using and Storing Walnuts
It’s easy to remember to add walnuts to your brain food shopping list because the edible portion looks a little like a brain. 🙂
Even when you buy walnuts and plan to eat them promptly, it’s best to store them in your refrigerator, not your pantry.
If you’ll be storing them for longer than a month, it’s recommended to store them in your freezer.
#9. Turmeric: The Antidepressant, Anti-Alzheimer’s Spice
Most spices, like black pepper, cinnamon, garlic, ginger, saffron, and vanilla, are powerful antioxidants and provide some brain benefits.
But one spice that stands above the rest is turmeric.
Turmeric is the spice that gives curry powder its rich golden hue.
It comes from the root of a tropical plant (Curcuma longa) native to India.
Cooking residue found on pottery shards reveals it’s been used in cooking for over 4,500 years. (109)
It’s also an important spice in Ayurveda, India’s 5,000-year-old natural healing system.
Turmeric exhibits impressive antidepressant properties and has been found to work even better than Prozac. (112)
But unlike antidepressants, turmeric is safe, has no side effects, can be used indefinitely, and can be safely combined with other natural remedies for depression such as SAM-e and St. John’s wort. (113)
Of all the active compounds found in this well-studied spice, the most important is curcumin.
It reduces brain inflammation and can break up the brain plaques suspected of causing Alzheimer’s. (115)
Elderly villagers in India who regularly eat turmeric have the lowest rates of Alzheimer’s in the world. (116)
Turmerone, another substance found in turmeric, stimulates the production of new neurons and encourages the brain to repair itself. (117)
RECOMMENDED: For real brain benefits, use 1/4 – 1/2 teaspoon of turmeric in cooking per day. (118)
Tips for Enhancing Turmeric Absorption
Curcumin, the main active compound in turmeric, is very poorly absorbed unless you take one of these simple steps.
Use turmeric with black pepper when cooking.
(Both are ingredients in curry powder — surely not a coincidence!)
Black pepper contains piperine, a molecule which increases curcumin absorption by an astounding 2,000%. (119)
Cooking turmeric in oil, as is traditionally done in Indian cooking, greatly enhances the bioavailablity of fat-soluble curcumin. (120)
Lastly, you can prepare turmeric as a tea.
Boiling turmeric in water for 10 minutes increases curcumin bioavailability a substantial 1,200%. (121)
NOTE: When buying ground turmeric powder, quality matters.
In August, 2016, several brands of ground turmeric powder brand were recalled for lead contamination.
Make sure your favorite brand is not on the FDA recall list.
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#10. Olive Oil: Key Ingredient of the Healthiest Diet
Olive oil is an integral part of the Mediterranean diet, widely believed to be the healthiest way to eat.
Olive oil’s “heart healthy” monounsaturated fats are equally beneficial for the brain. (122)
Olive oil contains over 30 phenolic compounds that are potent antioxidants and free radical scavengers. (124)
Oleocanthal, an anti-inflammatory agent unique to olive oil, helps clear the brain of the beta-amyloid proteins associated with Alzheimer’s. (130)
Following a Mediterranean diet high in olive oil reduces the risk of Alzheimer’s up to 40%. (131)
One last benefit of olive oil is what it doesn’t contain — unhealthy trans fats.
Vegetable oils like canola and soy are extracted with heat and chemical solvents which creates these dangerous compounds.
The simple act of replacing trans fats with extra virgin olive oil decreases the risk of depression by almost 50%. (133)
RECOMMENDED: A typical recommendation is 2 tablespoons per day. (134)
Tips for Buying Genuine Extra Virgin Olive Oil
To buy the best olive oil, start by looking for the term “extra virgin.” But don’t stop there.
Olive oil is a big business and unfortunately olive oil fraud is rampant.
The Italian mafia makes an estimated $16 billion per year selling fake food, including olive oil. (135)
Here in the US, class action suits have been filed against olive oil distributors Filippo Berio and Bertolli for olive oil fraud.
A University of California study rocked consumer confidence when it reported that 69% of imported and 10% of California extra virgin olive oil failed to meet extra virgin quality standards.
Here are a few ways to make sure your olive oil is of the highest quality:
- Buy extra virgin olive oil and do your homework to find a reputable brand.
- If possible, buy directly from a local olive oil farm.
- Look for olive oil labeled Ultra Premium (UP). This is step up from extra virgin and is now recognized as the highest quality olive oil in the world.
- Every spring, the best olive oils in the world compete in the New York International Olive Oil Competition. Some of these award-winning oils can be ordered online. A few, like California Olive Ranch Miller’s Blend and Pacific Sun Olive Oil Riverview Ranch Tuscan Blend (2015 winners), are available on Amazon.
You’ll find more helpful tips for buying and using olive oil in our article Olive Oil: A Best Brain Food (& Smart Buying Tips).
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#11. Coconut Oil: For Instant Brain Energy
Coconut oil is another excellent brain food. However, in the past, it has been demonized for its high saturated fat content.
People of the Pacific Islands so highly regard coconut as both food and medicine they call the coconut palm tree the “tree of life.”
The main reason coconut oil is considered a brain food is its high concentration of MCTs (medium chain triglycerides).
MCTs are found in human breast milk and are added to baby formula since they’re essential for babies’ developing brains. (138)
Your brain’s usual source of fuel is glucose, but the MCTs in coconut oil get broken down into ketones which feed the brain directly, bypassing glucose metabolism. (139)
It’s this property that makes coconut oil a promising treatment for Alzheimer’s which some experts consider a third form of diabetes — a “diabetes of the brain.” (140)
Neurologist Dr. David Perlmutter, author of the bestseller Grain Brain, includes coconut oil as part of his “anti-Alzheimer’s trio,” along with avocados and omega-3 rich grass-fed beef.
PET scans show that the areas of the brain affected by Alzheimer’s that can no longer absorb glucose readily use ketones. (141)
Coconut oil has also been found to reduce the beta-amyloid plaques associated with this disease. (142)
In one exciting study, adults with mild cognitive impairment showed significant improvement in memory recall within 90 minutes of taking a single dose of MCT oil. (143)
But everyone can benefit from the inclusion of this brain-healthy cooking oil in their diet.
RECOMMENDED: Dr. Mary Newport, a neonatology physician who popularized the use of coconut oil to treat Alzheimer’s, recommends starting with 1 teaspoon of coconut oil 2 or 3 times a day. If you are using coconut oil therapeutically for any neurological disorder, you can download a free copy of her Coconut Oil Dietary Guidelines here.
Tips for Using Coconut Oil
Coconut oil melts at room temperature (76 degrees) so sometimes it’s liquid and sometimes it’s a soft solid.
And don’t put it in the refrigerator, it turns rock-hard.
You can use coconut oil anywhere you normally use other vegetable oils, butter, or nut butters.
You can cook, fry or bake with it, spread it, or add a dollop in soups, rice, or smoothies.
The only caution is not to make salad dressing with it since it solidifies when the dressing is poured on cold vegetables.
Note that most coconut oils taste and smell like coconut.
If this puts you off, don’t give up on using coconut oil.
Look for a taste-neutral coconut oil like this one.
Refined coconut oil retains the benefits of MCTs that you want but with none of coconut’s distinctive taste.
Buying organic is optional since coconut oil generally is pesticide-free. (146)
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#12. Fermented Foods: To Nourish Your “Second Brain”
One of the weirdest and most fascinating neuroscience discoveries of recent times surrounds the microbiome, the bacteria that reside in our intestinal tract. (147)
This community of microbes has a powerful and unexpected influence over our brain, causing science to refer to the gut as the “second brain” or the “backup brain.” (148)
Gut bacteria make over 30 neurotransmitters including serotonin, norepinephrine, acetylcholine, dopamine, and GABA. (149)
These bacteria influence your health, your mood, and even the kinds of decisions you make.
Some neuroscientists are calling this discovery a paradigm shift in our understanding of the brain.
Ideally, there’s a normal balance of both “good” and “bad” bacteria in your gut at all times.
But this balance can quickly get out of whack from antibiotics, stress, and even the food you eat.
A dysfunctional microbiome can be the root cause of a multitude of brain-related conditions including ADHD, anxiety, autism, depression, carb cravings, memory loss, concentration problems, and chronic inflammation of the brain. (152, 153, 154)
But you can encourage a healthy balance of intestinal bacteria by adding fermented foods to your diet.
Virtually all healthy traditional diets wisely incorporated some fermented foods like yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, kimchi, tamari, and miso.
These foods provide the good bacteria while prebiotic foods provide the proper nutrition for good bacteria to grow and flourish.
Foods high in these prebiotic fibers include asparagus, Jerusalem artichokes, bamboo shoots, bananas, barley, chicory, leeks, garlic, jicama, lentils, mustard greens, onions, tomatoes, and yacón, a natural sweetener. (155, 156)
Eating prebiotic foods alone can reduce stress, anxiety and depression. (157)
RECOMMENDED: If you aren’t used to eating fermented foods, start slowly — a few spoonfuls per day — to allow the good bacteria to establish themselves and the bad bacteria to die off gradually. Then eat one or more servings per day.
Tips for Buying Fermented Foods
Unfortunately, few fermented foods at the grocery store contain the live bacterial cultures that are beneficial.
Here’s how to find those that do.
Look for fermented dairy products that state they contain “live and active” cultures.
Get plain yogurt and add your own fruit.
Added sugar in commercial yogurt feeds bad gut bacteria, nullifying some of yogurt’s beneficial effects.
Avoid artificial sweeteners like Splenda. They can reduce the number of good bacteria in your intestines by 50%. (158)
If you haven’t tried it, consider kefir. It contains a greater variety of cultures than yogurt and is well tolerated even by those who are lactose intolerant. (161)
Look for sauerkraut specifically labeled raw, naturally fermented, probiotic or lacto-fermented.
Don’t cook it — eat it cold or at room temperature since heat destroys the good bacteria you want.
Only buy high quality, traditionally fermented miso, tempeh, and tamari.
Skip supermarket soy sauce that contains sugar, artificial preservatives, and colorings — and little beneficial bacteria.
Or you can get adventurous and make your own fermented foods.
It’s easier than you might expect!
Brain Foods: The Bottom Line
Your brain is your most valuable organ — and it’s a powerhouse that requires a lot of good nutrition to keep it humming along.
The low-fat diet trend has been a big fat failure, especially when it comes to the health of your brain.
More than half of the top brain foods are loaded with healthy fats.
When it comes to nutrition, the devil is in the details.
This is why vague advice like “eat more fish” realistically won’t do your brain health much good.
But incorporating the right brain foods into your diet will give your brain the right assortment of nutrients it needs to thrive.
Making sound food choices day in and day out is the key to a healthy brain.
And a healthy brain is a key to a happy, productive life.